Friday, May 11, 2012

Absolute reference frame

‘Hypothesis on MATTER’, as proposed in the book 'MATTER (Re-examined)', envisages a homogeneous, isotropic and serene universal medium, made up of matter particles. Since this medium fills the entire space and (as a whole) is steady in space, it can provide an absolute reference for all actions on and apparent interactions between 3D matter macro bodies. Homogeneity of universal medium is usually affected only in close proximity of matter bodies. Very large macro bodies affect homogeneity of universal medium for considerable distance from the body. Any point in universal medium may be chosen as an origin and coordinate planes through the origin will provide an absolute reference frame. When motion of a body is related to absolute reference, parameters of the body and its path in space will reflect real status of the body and its motion. Motion is an inherent property of 3D matter bodies. Translational motion with respect to universal medium is essential for stability and integrity of basic 3D matter particles. Every macro body, in nature, is under motion. However, motion of a macro body is limited to within its parent galaxy. A stable galaxy has no translational motion. It rotates about its centre and all objects, which are part of it, move about galactic centre, which is steady in universal medium. As universal medium is not observable and a galaxy is too large, establishing an absolute reference for practical purposes and to relate it to objects’ motions is very tedious and complicated. However, true parameters of a body’s motion can be understood only when an ‘absolute reference’ is used.

Saturday, April 7, 2012

Reference frame

Motion is the process of a body’s displacement in space. Change in the spatial location of a body with respect to a reference is its displacement. Instantaneous motion concerns itself with a body’s behaviour during the instant in consideration.
Change of position of a body can be understood only in relation to another body or with respect to a frame of reference or a coordinate system. Depending on the references used or the shapes of paths of displacements, motion is classified into various types. Usually, motion involves instant-by-instant charting of the behaviour of an object. This view reveals not only the instantaneous behaviour of the object but gives a complete picture of it behaviour for a length of time and route and shape of its displacements between initial location and final location.
All motions are understood in relation to one or other reference. Since, at present we have no absolute reference; we use any other seemingly steady body as a reference. Newtonian mechanics consider centre of Solar system as an absolute reference for all purposes related to our planetary system. However, this reference is changed to ‘centre of planet’, while considering satellite systems and to surface points on earth for day to day motions of earth-based objects. In rotary motion, centre of rotation is taken as a reference point. Inferences, based on relative reference frame, are often false and apparent. It can provide true relative positions of the reference and the referred body. However, if reference body itself is moving, it will not be able to give any other parameters related to an object’s motion or shape of its path.
As long as reference frame and referred body have identical initial conditions of motions, they are assumed to be at rest in the relative reference frame. However, this does not reflect any changes within the bodies or their paths due to their real state of motion.

Saturday, March 3, 2012

Inverse Square Law

Search for cause and effect of an action often leads to evidence that two variables are causally related or not. Observation and measurement of actions may indicate a definite pattern by which an increase in one variable always causes another measurable quantity to increase. This is a ‘direct’ relationship. Observation might also indicate that an increase in one variable always causes another measurable quantity to decrease. This is an ‘inverse’ relationship.
In physics, an ‘inverse-square law’ generally states that a specified physical parameter is inversely proportional to the square of the distance from its source. It is generally applied when some conserved quantity is radiated outward radially in three-dimensional space from a point source. Since the surface area of a sphere is proportional to the square of its radius, as the radiated parameter gets farther from its source, it is spread out over an area that is increasing in proportion to the square of the distance from the source. Hence, the intensity of radiation passing through any unit area (directly facing the point source) is inversely proportional to the square of the distance from the point source. Thus any law in which a physical quantity varies with distance from a point, inversely as the square of that distance, is called an ‘inverse square law’.
As gravitational attraction is considered as an ‘attractive force’, inverse square law was adopted to determine its magnitude. Magnitude of gravitational attraction between two point-matter bodies (masses) is directly proportional to the product of their masses (representing their matter contents) and inversely proportional to square of their separation distance. Gravitational attraction is assumed always as attractive and to act along the straight line, joining centers of two macro bodies.
If distribution of matter in each body is spherically symmetric, then these objects can be treated as point masses, whose whole matter contents are concentrated at their centers. To calculate magnitude of gravitational attraction between large macro bodies, we need to add all point-point attractions vectorially and magnitude of net attraction might not show exact inverse square relationship. However, if distance between the macro bodies is much larger compared to their sizes, then it is reasonable to treat their matter contents (masses) as point mass while calculating (approximate) magnitude of gravitational attraction.
It is evident that magnitude of gravitational attraction between two matter bodies is in proportion to their matter contents and in inverse proportion to the distance between them. On this basis, an empirical formula is devised and used to determine magnitude of gravitational attraction between two matter bodies.
As there are no references available, magnitudes of gravitational attractions are determined on empirical basis and with the help of inverse square law. Gravitational attraction is measured in terms of rate of work that can be done on a (macro) body. Rate of work-done on a physical body is the ‘force’. Hence, gravitational attraction is defined as a ‘force’ of attraction between matter bodies. Equal magnitude of ‘force’ is presumed to act on both bodies, towards each other. However, they are never taken in combination. Gravitational attraction on any one body and its effect are usually taken in isolation and same on other body are ignored. Additional work, done on a body, changes its state (of motion). Change in the state of motion is the acceleration of the matter body. Thus, magnitude of gravitational attraction is measured in terms of rate of additional work (force) that can change the state of motion at certain
Force of gravitational attraction;F = G m1 m2 / d^2 , where m1 and m2 are rest masses of two bodies, equivalent to their matter contents, d is the distance between their centers of gravity and G is a constant, empirically determined from experiments.
Inverse square law for force of gravitational attraction is scaled by the use of a constant, G, determined by measuring inertial (that causes motion) actions of bodies due gravitational attraction between them, as it is done in the cases of various occasions, where this law is applicable. Since G is determined experimentally, no theoretical determination is attempted on logical reasons behind magnitude of this constant.

Saturday, February 4, 2012

Magnitude of gravitational attraction

Magnitude of gravitational attraction between two basic 3D matter particles (photons) is the resultant of gravitational actions on them, when their core bodies are in the same plane. When their disc-planes do not coincide, magnitude of gravitational attraction between them will be minimal. For all practical purposes it may be neglected. As universal medium is unable to act on flat surfaces of a photon (its disc-faces), gravitational attraction does not develop between two photons, whose disc-planes do not coincide.
Magnitude of gravitational action is proportional to extent of 2D energy fields, applying the effort. Considering two photons in space, whose disc-planes coincide, extent of 2D energy fields on the outer sides of two photons is infinite. Nature of 2D energy fields may be considered to be steady. Hence, gravitational actions on their outer sides are of highest and of constant magnitude. However, extent of 2D energy fields in between the two photons depends on the distance between them. Hence, distance between peripheries of two photons becomes a factor that determines magnitude of gravitational attraction between them. As distance between two photons increases, magnitude of gravitational efforts on them, from in between the photons increase and gravitational attraction between the photons reduces. Hence, magnitude of gravitational attraction between two matter bodies is in inverse proportion to distance between them
Gravitational actions are experienced separately by each of the basic 3D matter particles (photons) in nature. Combinations of photons, in various groupings, form fundamental particles, atoms and all other macro bodies. Gravitational attraction (between two macro bodies), at any instant, develop only between photons in them; whose disc shaped spinning core (matter) bodies happens to be simultaneously in the same plane. Photons are disc-shaped 3D matter bodies, spinning about their diameters. Primary 3D matter particles are formed by binary combinations of two spinning photons moving in common circular paths, at their critical linear speeds. Therefore, frequency and regularity of a pair of (one from each macro body) photons coming in the same plane simultaneously are very small. Gravitational attraction between them takes place only when they are in the same plane.
Although macro bodies are constituted by numerous photons, at any instant, there are very minute fractions of constituent photons from both macro bodies are under mutual gravitational attraction. Magnitude of gravitational attraction between two macro bodies is the average sum total of gravitational attractions between their constituent photons. Therefore, practically, magnitude of gravitational attraction between two macro bodies at any instant is a minute fraction of total gravitational attractions between all their constituent photons.
Each photon is separately affected by gravitation. More number of photons in a macro body will increase gravitational attraction on it towards another macro body. Total quantity of matter content in a macro body is roughly proportional to number of photons in a macro body. Total number of photons in a macro body may be represented by its total matter content. Therefore, magnitude of gravitational attraction due to any body is roughly proportional to its total matter content.

Sunday, January 8, 2012

Gravitational attraction

If there are more than one disturbance in a 2D energy field, gravitational pressure acts on them separately. Extents of 2D energy field on outer sides of these disturbances are greater than the extent of 2D energy field in between them. Gravitational effort is proportional to the extent of 2D energy fields that is applying the effort. Hence, these disturbances experience greater gravitational efforts on their outer sides, compared to the gravitational efforts, experienced on their inner side from 2D energy fields in between them. This causes a relative difference between the gravitational efforts applied on either side of individual disturbances. Resultant of the gravitational efforts on outer and inner sides of disturbances tends to move the disturbances towards each other. This is the apparent attraction due to gravitation or gravitational attraction. Bringing two smaller disturbances, by gravitational attraction, to combine with each other and form a larger disturbance is another manifestation of 2D energy field’s property to reduce disturbances in it to minimum. All higher-dimensional matter-bodies are disturbances with respect to 2D energy fields.
2D energy fields act on each of the disturbances in it, separately. Simultaneous actions by (invisible) universal medium on two or more disturbances (bodies) considered together appears to be interactions between these disturbances. Since the gravitational attraction between two disturbances is the resultant of differences in the gravitational actions on them, the action appears to be very feeble compared to other forms of ‘natural forces’. There are more reasons for gravitational attraction’s comparative weakness.
Action of gravitational effort/pressure on each 3D matter-body is independent of all other 3D matter-bodies. Development of 2D energy field-distortions, about a 3D matter-body, which produce gravitational actions on it, is an inertial action (an action that produces the property of inertia of matter bodies). This takes place during the development of basic 3D matter particles. Thereafter, the apparent interactions between 3D matter-macro bodies, due to gravitation, are instantaneous. Hence, the action of gravitational attraction takes place instantly on change of parameters or constitution of 3D matter-bodies. Changes in the parameters or constitution of a 3D matter body are carried out by developing appropriate 2D energy field-distortions about the body. Gravitational effort on the body changes simultaneously during this development. This causes instantaneous changes in gravitational attraction between two 3D matter bodies, on changes of their parameters. No transfer of imaginary particles/energy from one body to another is required to produce changes in gravitational attraction between two matter bodies. However, the inertial motions of 3D matter bodies, under gravitational attraction, are again subject to inertial delay.
Gravitational actions are applicable only on curved perimeter-surfaces of basic 3D matter particles’ (photons’) core bodies. Photons are disc-shaped matter particles of critical radial size, which spin about one of their diameters. Gravitational attraction between two macro bodies takes place only when disc-planes of a number of photons in both macro bodies are in common planes. Constituent photons of a macro body spin about their diameters and move at constant linear speed in circular path within (primary 3D matter particles of) the macro body. Hence, duration for disc-plane of any one photon in a macro body to be in a common plane with disc-plane of a photon in another macro body is very small and very rare. Hence, magnitude of gravitational attraction between two macro bodies is extremely small compared to the magnitude of gravitational actions. This has prompted us to label gravitation as a ‘very weak force’.
Gravitation is an action by 2D energy fields on any disturbance in it. Although gravitation acts on every single basic 3D matter particle continuously, gravitational attraction requires presence of more than one basic 3D matter particles, whose disc planes coincides. Therefore no matter body can be gravitationally attracted in any direction, unless there is another matter body in that direction.

Thursday, November 17, 2011

Gravitation

Constituent quanta of matter in a 2D energy field (in quanta-chains) are held under compression from (both) their ends. Should there be a local rupture; a gap is created in (one or more) 2D energy fields. Quanta of matter, which occupied the region of the gap, as part of the latticework, are released from the latticework structures, to float freely within the gap. Currently, this space is void or empty, with floating quanta of matter in it. As soon as these quanta of matter become free, each one starts to grow in its single spatial dimension to increase its length, while attempting to regain its position in the latticework structure. No other actions are possible by free quanta of matter.
In the mean time, due to their inherent compression, quanta-chains will grow (extend) into the gap and reduce area (volumetric space) of the gap. As a result, many of the free quanta of matter in the gap will not be able to migrate back into latticework structures of 2D energy fields. Quanta of matter, which are unable to gain their position in the latticework structure, are gathered together, within the gap, by the encroaching quanta-chains. These free quanta of matter are gathered and compressed by each of the 2D energy fields, in its own plane, until the combined body of free quanta of matter become a single integrated matter body - a circular ‘2D disturbance’ within each of the 2D energy fields. This phenomenon gives rise to the property of 2D energy fields to reduce any disturbance in them to minimum magnitude. Magnitude of a disturbance in any plane is the length of its perimeter in that plane and in contact with the 2D energy field.
Tendency of a 2D energy field, to grow into a gap in it, is gravitational action. Gravitational pressure (force) is enormously strong, that it can compress 1D quanta of matter into their higher spatial dimensions. If the matter content of a 2D disturbance in a 2D energy field is more than certain limit, compression on the disturbance, by gravitational pressure, compel constituent quanta of matter in the 2D disturbance to grow into their third spatial dimension. A disturbance, growing into the third spatial dimension, creates real three-dimensional matter. In our sense, this is the creation of real matter from the postulated 1D matter particles (functional entities with respect to 3D beings). A reverse process describes reversion of real 3D matter into its functional state.
Gravitational effort is exerted by 2D energy fields in the direction away from the quanta-chains, which are exerting the effort. It is of push nature. Due to latticework structure of 2D energy fields, gravitational effort can act only on curved perimeter (surface) of a disturbance. All 3D matter particles are disturbances with respect to 2D energy fields. However, as 3D macro bodies are structured by basic 3D matter particles, curvature of 3D macro body’s perimeter has little effect on magnitude of gravitation.
If the distortion-densities in 2D energy fields, on opposite sides of a 3D matter particle, are different, distortions tend to redistribute by moving in the direction of lower distortion-density region. While doing so, distortions in the 2D energy fields carry a disturbance within the gap, along with them. This causes displacement of a disturbance in space.

Saturday, September 17, 2011

Size reduction of disturbances

Development of a disturbance breaks continuity of 2D energy fields. 2D energy fields around a disturbance tend to reform their latticework structure. This attempt is prevented by presence of disturbance in the gap of latticework structure. However, in this process, latticework squares around the disturbance, in each of the 2D energy fields, restructure with deformations. 2D energy fields are distorted so that their junction points are in contact with perimeter/surface of disturbance. Each 2D energy field creates tightly enclosing envelop around the disturbance, in its own plane.
As 2D energy fields are inherently under compression, a disturbance, breaking their continuity and existing within the gap of 2D energy fields, experience external pressure all around its outer perimeter/surface. External pressure on a disturbance tends to reduce its size to minimum. Magnitude of a disturbance is related to its perimeter and it can be reduced by reducing disturbance’s perimeter. This can be achieved in two ways.
For the same area, a circular figure has minimum length of perimeter. As external pressure on a disturbance is equal from all sides, it is a natural tendency for all disturbances to attain circular shapes in all planes of its existence. It is an inherent property of 2D energy fields to form disturbances in it to circular shape. Even after a disturbance (in any plane) becomes circular, external efforts from 2D energy fields (gravitational pressure) continue to compress it until it attains highest matter-density, permitted in nature. Highest matter-density is that of a basic 3D matter particle and that of a quantum of matter. For this, external pressure, exerted by 2D energy fields, on a disturbance has to be extremely large. Contrary to current beliefs, gravitational effort is extremely huge, compared to other manifestations of ‘natural forces’. Depending on the compactness of quanta of matter, constituting a disturbance formed by multiple quanta of matter in any plane, matter-density of disturbance in that plane may vary. It will be the aim of gravitational pressure to compress a disturbance (in each of the planes of its existence) to highest matter-density and circular shape.
Sum of perimeters of two smaller circles is more than the perimeter of a single circle, whose area is equal to sum total area of smaller circles. Therefore, magnitude of total disturbance in a 2D energy field can be reduced by combining smaller disturbances to form a single but larger disturbance. Gravitational actions by 2D energy fields tend to combine smaller disturbances to form larger disturbance, by driving them towards each other. This phenomenon is understood as (apparent) gravitational attraction.

Friday, September 2, 2011

Disturbance

A matter body, which is not a part and causes discontinuity of 2D energy field latticework structure, is a ‘disturbance’ with respect to the 2D energy field. It may in the form of a group of independent 1D quanta of matter, a 2D matter particle, a 3D matter particle or a macro body made of numerous 3D matter particles. A disturbance has a definite perimeter and breaks continuity of 2D energy field(s) of its existence. It has a separate identity and existence in 2D energy fields. Although disturbances are not parts of 2D energy fields, they are contained within 2D energy fields. 2D energy fields encompass a disturbance and they are in constant direct contact with it, all around its periphery in all spatial dimensions of its existence.
Every point on a disturbance’s perimeter is in direct contact with 2D energy fields. All actions on a disturbance are performed by 2D energy fields. Each 2D energy fields affects peripheral points in its plane. Therefore, magnitudes of actions on a disturbance are proportional to number of direct contact between 2D energy fields and the disturbance, which is proportional to magnitude of its perimeter.
Since, 2D energy fields are inherently under compression, a disturbance that breaks their continuity is bound to experience compression from 2D energy fields. All disturbances experience constant compression, all around its periphery, from 2D energy fields of its existence in all spatial dimensions. This phenomenon of external pressure on a disturbance from all around its perimeter may be called ‘gravitation’ or ‘gravitational pressure’.
Although deformations in latticework structure disturbs stability of 2D energy fields, as they do not cause discontinuity in them, deformations or distortions in 2D energy fields are not ‘disturbances’. Deformations of 2D energy fields are ‘work’, existing in that region. They are not separate entities from 2D energy fields. Stress, due to deformations in 2D energy fields, is ‘energy’, associated with the work. Energy has no separate or independent existence. As all ‘types’ of work are deformations of 2D energy fields, they are identical. Stresses in deformed 2D energy fields are also identical. Hence, there are no different types of energy.

Saturday, August 13, 2011

Properties of 2D energy fields

A 2D energy field is a two-dimensional entity. It has only length and breadth as its fundamental spatial dimensions. A real entity in space essentially exists in all spatial dimensions of the space. Hence, however small its third spatial dimensional measurement may be, a 2D energy field has its existence in the third spatial dimension also.
A volumetric space is made up of great many parallel planes, in contact. If a plane is considered to have no thickness, any number of parallel planes cannot constitute a volumetric space. Since 2D energy fields occupy volumetric space, each 2D energy field has certain thickness and there is a definite separation between two 2D energy fields in adjacent parallel planes. Parameters of a 2D energy field or other 2D bodies can be accurately determined only after evolving a mathematical system that can measure thickness of a plane or breadth and thickness of a straight line.
2D energy fields (universal medium), as envisaged in ‘Hypothesis on MATTER’ to substitute for space, have the following inherent properties:
Inherent properties of 2D energy fields are derived from inherent properties of their constituent quanta of matter and mechanical structure of their latticework formations.
2D energy fields are two-dimensional entities made up of single-dimensional quanta of matter. Each 2D energy field exists and acts in its own plane. Only one 2D energy field exists in any one plane and all planes in all directions in 3D space contain one 2D energy field each.
2D energy fields in different planes, passing through a point in space, co-exist at the point. However, each 2D energy field can act only in its own plane.
Quanta of matter in a 2D energy field are held under compression from their ends, in quanta-chains situated in perpendicular directions, crossing at junction points between quanta of matter.
In stable state of a 2D energy field, constituent quanta of matter form sides of perfect squares in its latticework structure. A change from the stable state produces restoring reactions in the latticework structure.
2D energy fields are self-sustaining entities. They strive to sustain their integrity, stability, homogeneity, isotropy and serenity. Each 2D energy field has an adhesion within itself and tends to maintain its continuity in the plane of its existence.
Tendency of 2D energy fields to close-in any gap in them produces phenomenon of gravitation.
2D energy fields fill the entire space outside 3D matter particles. Each 2D energy field extends indefinitely in all directions in its plane. Since there are no voids (or limits to the extents of 2D energy fields), no matter particles can exist outside 2D energy fields.
All higher-dimensional spatial systems exist within the 2D energy fields and all higher-dimensional matter particles are disturbances with respect to 2D energy fields.
2D energy fields tend to reduce disturbances in them to minimum; either by reducing their sizes by shaping them circular and compressing to smaller size and/or by ejecting the disturbances from the site of their creation.
All 3D matter particles are created from, sustained by and reverted back into 2D energy fields.
2D energy fields provide an all encompassing universal medium for all 3D matter bodies and apparent interactions between them.
On the whole, the 2D energy fields are perpetual and steady in space. No new 2D energy field is ever produced. They provide an absolute reference.
Region of 2D energy fields, about a 3D matter-body, stores work in the form of distortions (and energy in the form of stress, associated with the distortions) to sustain integrity and stability of the 3D matter-body and its current state (of motion).
Distortions (work-done and corresponding energy) in two 2D energy fields cannot interact directly. Transfer of distortions or interactions between distortion fields are limited to the plane of each 2D energy field. Simultaneous actions in many planes appear to be an action in 3D spatial system.
3D matter particles are displaced in space by the transfer of distortions in steady 2D energy fields. Absolute motions of matter bodies are with respect to the steady 2D energy fields.
3D matter bodies are moved by 2D energy fields rather than the bodies move through 2D energy fields.
Latticework structure of a 2D energy field causes sequential development of distortions in neighbouring latticework squares. Distortions, once developed, remain permanently within the 2D energy field, unless removed by external action. These phenomena give rise to the property of inertia.
Interactions between two points in a 2D energy field are confined to the plane containing both the points. [In order to avoid theoretical possibility of more than one 2D energy field passing through two points, here, a point should be understood to be having the smallest area and be a part of one 2D energy field plane. So that, there can be only one 2D energy field passing through any two coplanar points].

Tuesday, July 19, 2011

2D energy fields II

Although 3D matter particles are created out of and by the 2D energy fields, their volumetric shape and space enclosed by their bodies are distinct from surrounding 2D energy fields. 2D energy fields maintain constant contact at a 3D matter body’s surfaces and maintain its three-dimensional status. 2D energy fields, inherently being under compression, exert external pressure on all 3D matter particles (disturbances) in it. This phenomenon is gravitation. Gravitational effort is enormously stronger than all other manifestations of ‘natural force’. Natural forces, classified into various types (electromagnetic, nuclear, inertial, etc.), are derived from gravitational actions. Hence, there is only one type of effort in nature and all ‘natural forces’ (currently classified into various types) are different manifestations of the same natural gravitational effort.
Actions are recognized by inertial motions of corresponding 3D matter bodies. Magnitudes of gravitational actions are proportional to the extent of 2D energy fields, applying the effort. Since the 2D energy fields extend infinitely, their extents on the outer sides of a pair of 3D matter bodies are always greater than their extent in between the bodies. Hence, gravitational actions on these bodies are greater on their outer sides. Resultant of gravitational actions on these bodies appears to push them towards each other. This phenomenon appears as the ‘gravitational attraction’ between matter bodies. Currently, only this dynamic-part of gravitational action is considered as its sole nature. Static nature of gravitation is more important and basic. Since the gravitational actions are between 3D matter particles and 2D energy fields, which are in direct contact, they change instantaneously and continuously on changes in parameters of corresponding 3D matter bodies.
Gravitational actions by 2D energy fields are the basis of creation of 3D matter, development of various primary and fundamental matter particles, formation of atoms/molecules and macro bodies. 2D energy fields create, sustain and gradually destroy all 3D matter bodies in nature. Nature of distortions in the 2D energy fields, in and about matter bodies of various sizes and structures, defines their characteristic properties and nature of apparent interactions between them.
Gravitational attraction between (macro) matter bodies compel them to move in space. Hence, all 3D matter bodies in nature, except stable galaxies (with angular motion), are under linear motion. Galaxies have special mechanism that keeps them in relatively static location within 2D energy fields. As a whole, the universe is steady and perpetual. However, 3D matter and macro bodies in different parts of universe are cyclically destroyed and rebuilt. During destruction, 3D matter is reverted to its basic form of quanta of matter to become part of 2D energy fields. Simultaneously, 3D matter particles are formed elsewhere in the 2D energy fields through various stages of creation and conversion to produce 3D macro bodies.
Every possible plane in space contains a 2D energy field, each. 2D energy fields in different planes, passing through a point, co-exist at that point. 2D energy fields fill the entire space outside 3D matter particles. 2D energy fields in all possible planes in three-dimensional space, together, replace the functional entity of ‘space’ with a real entity of ‘2D energy fields’. Since a volumetric space is filled by the 2D energy fields and 3D matter particles in it, the entire volume of space is occupied by quanta of matter, either in the form of 3D matter or as matter in lower spatial dimensions. Total matter content within this volume of space is comparable with matter content of a 3D matter particle occupying similar volume of space. Since the 2D energy fields cannot act among themselves, matter content enclosed within this volume of space, in the form of 2D energy fields, cannot express itself to 3D rational beings. However, a 3D matter particle of the same volume can be acted upon by 2D energy fields. It is able to express itself to the observer by its displacement in 2D energy fields. Rational beings recognize (3D) matter bodies by its expression of actions to an observer. Therefore, even though the matter content of a volumetric space in the 2D energy fields remains hidden from observers, a 3D matter particle of similar volume within the 2D energy fields is observable. This is why the 3D matter is considered as real matter and 2D and 1D matter are considered as functional matter in this concept. This hidden part of matter in the universe (occupying nearly whole volume of space) may be called ‘dark matter’.
2D energy fields extend in all directions to infinity. It is the ability of rational beings to gather information from a distance that determines limit of universe for them. Although 2D energy fields extents infinitely in all directions, it is the limitation on the ability of rational beings that limits the size of universe for them. This limit is identical in all directions, irrespective of location of observer in space. To any rational being, the universe appears spherical with definite size, which depends on its ability to gather information from.
2D energy fields accounts for creation, sustenance and apparent interactions of three-dimensional matter-bodies. Perpetuity of 2D energy fields bestows the universe with its ‘steady state’ of perpetual existence.

Saturday, July 9, 2011

2D energy fields I

2D energy fields are latticework structures formed by apparently rigid quanta of matter. Although they are made up of rigid matter particles, 2D energy fields structurally behaves like an ideal fluid. A 2D energy field is easily deformed due to very small bonding strength of joints between constituent quanta of matter. Distortions of limited magnitude are tolerated within a 2D energy field. During distortions: (a). Quanta of matter meeting at a junction point deflect angularly from their stable alignment with respect to each other and/or (b). Quanta of matter in quanta-chains vary their length, depending on the variation of compression from their ends.
Angular displacements of quanta of matter at a junction point invoke angular reaction, from latticework, on them to return to their stable relative positions. Similarly, a change in the length of a quantum of matter invokes reaction from latticework to restore its length suitable for stable configuration. Any distortion in a 2D energy field is always opposed by a reaction from the latticework. Reaction, within the latticework, tends to restore stability and serenity of a 2D energy field. Thus, it becomes an inherent property of a 2D energy field to strive towards its stable isotropic state. In its stable state, a 2D energy field is isotropic, homogeneous and serene. A 2D energy field, considered as a whole, is steady in space. Small local distortions in it may be transferred within its plane. Due to their steady state, the 2D energy fields can provide an absolute reference in space.
Deforming effort always acts against stabilising effort at junction points in the latticework structure. Due to its ability to stabilise itself, any distortion in a 2D energy field cannot remain static or localised; it spreads the direction of effort causing the distortion. 3D matter particles are held suspended by the 2D energy fields in the distortions, being transferred. Transfer of distortions in 2D energy fields carry suspended 3D matter particles in the region along with the moving distortions. Although a moving 3D matter particle has no relative motion with respect to 2D energy fields in its immediate neighbourhood, it is displaced with respect to the vast expanse of 2D energy fields. Although distortions in 2D energy fields appears to move during their transfer, 2D energy fields as a whole, remains static, homogeneous, isotropic and serene. Static 2D energy fields can provide an absolute reference for all actions in nature.
All free distortions (not associated with 3D macro bodies) and distortions associated with basic 3D matter particles, in 2D energy fields, travel at the speed of light. Magnitude of this speed is limited by ability of 2D energy fields to transfer distortions in them. Distortions, associated with macro bodies/particles, may move at any linear speed, lower than the highest limit. As distortions in 2D energy field move, they carry all 3D matter particles present in the region, along with them. In case of macro bodies/particles, this phenomenon causes inertial motion. Since, it is the displacement of the distortions, which moves the 3D matter bodies; there is no relative motion between matter bodies and surrounding 2D energy fields. It is like, when an object is blown away by wind, there is no relative motion between the object and air in its immediate neighbourhood. But the object has a clear displacement with respect to the large body of air in the region. Therefore, there is no friction between 2D energy fields and a 3D macro body, moving in it. There is no ‘aether drag’ on a macro body, moving through 2D energy fields.
Due to latticework structure of a 2D energy field and its inherent property of stabilization (except for gravitational actions in certain cases), deformations in a 2D energy field cannot be contained in any locality. Distortion in a 2D energy field is bound to spread-out in its latticework. If there is an external cause, distortions tend to be transferred in the direction away from the cause, without displacing 2D energy fields. Each latticework square transfers its distortion to the square in front and returns to its original state. Sequential spread of distortion, from one latticework square to the next, introduces a time delay in the development and transfer of distortions. As soon as the cause is removed, latticework structure of the distorted 2D energy field tends to regain its stability. However, distortions contained in the latticework will continue to move in their original direction, without loss of magnitude or change in direction, unless their magnitude or direction are changed/removed by an external agency by introducing deformations of different magnitude and direction in the latticework. These properties of time delay during development and transfer of distortions and constant speed of their transfer through 2D energy fields give rise to the property of inertia, which is presently attributed to matter bodies. A distorted region of 2D energy fields is a ‘distortion field’. Due to the latticework structure of a 2D energy field, distortions in it can exist only in a closed-loop-arrangement.
Actions by 2D energy fields are results of mechanical movements of its constituent quanta of matter, within their latticework structures. Since distortions in 2D energy fields are the cause of all actions, fundamentally there is only one type of effort in nature, which is currently bifurcated into many types of ‘natural forces’. Manner of distortions in the 2D energy fields determine the type of ‘natural force’ manifested during an interaction. Gravitation and inertia are properties of the 2D energy fields.
Displacements of quanta of matter (including the changes in their lengths) are tangible in 2D spatial system. They are real and constitute displacement in space, which is called ‘work-done’. Due to reactions, developed during deformations, 2D energy fields experience stress. Stress, produced by distortions in the latticework structure, is the ‘energy’ associated with work-done. Rate of magnitude of distortions (work), being introduced into a 2D energy field latticework, is ‘force’ or ‘power’. Ultimately, displacements of ‘disturbances’ (matter bodies) within 2D energy fields are produced by transfer of latticework distortions from higher distortion-density region to lower distortion-density region. This is the action of an effort. Whichever is the manifestation of effort (as classified into various ‘natural forces’ like: gravitational, electromagnetic, nuclear, inertial, etc.), they all act in similar manner. Thus, fundamentally, there is only one type of effort in nature. ‘Force’ is generally associated with motion of a 3D matter body and it simply means rate of work, irrespective of the nature of work or its source.

Sunday, July 3, 2011

Extent of lattice structure

As there are infinite number of quanta of matter in universe and the universe extents to infinity, lattice structure in each plane extents to infinity in all directions. Lattice structures by quanta of matter are always present in their own planes. No new lattice structures are ever formed. Although lattice structures of quanta of matter may occasionally breakdown locally, on the whole, they are perpetual structures in space. Lattice structures in different planes, crossing each other, co-exist at points of their crossings.
As lattice structures by quanta of matter are present in all possible planes in space and each lattice structure extents infinitely in its plane, together, they fill entire space without void. Lattice structures in all planes together forms a ‘universal medium’ that fills the entire space. This entity is similar to aether in aether-theories. In order to distinguish this universal medium from others, like; aethers in different aether-theories, force fields, etc., it may be called ‘2D energy fields’. 2D energy fields and space become synonymous. Undefined functional space is replaced by a universal medium made of real matter.
Theoretically, few quanta of matter are able to form very vast latticework structure, however practically, there are far too many quanta of matter in each quanta-chain. Due to various occasions available for their local breakdowns and availability of free quanta of matter near such breakdowns, there are plenty of opportunities for free quanta of matter to infiltrate into quanta-chains of lattice structures. Such infiltrations cause excess number of quanta of matter in each quanta-chain. Changes in quanta-density of 2D energy fields are bound to vary their ability and actions. We can say that present quanta-density in 2D energy fields are suitable for current state of universe.
Presence of excess number of quanta of matter in a quanta-chain necessitates constituent quanta of matter to be pressed from their ends, against their self-elongating tendency. Each quantum of matter grows into second spatial dimension, while its length is reduced, until external pressure can be balanced by reaction from self-extension. Therefore, every quanta-chain and (in turn) whole of lattice structure are constantly under compression. Pressure exerted by compressed 2D energy field (its natural stable state) on any body within 2D energy field may be called ‘gravitation’.

Tuesday, June 28, 2011

Stability of lattice structure

Every junction in a stable latticework structure is made up of four quanta of matter each. Each quantum of matter tends to remain angularly equidistant from its neighbors. Each latticework square has four quanta of matter as its sides. Apparent repulsion between their bodies (as a result of adhesion between quanta of matter in contact at common junction point) tends to maintain shape of latticework square.
Deformation of a latticework square changes its shape. One or more sides of the latticework square may tend to elongate. Since the quanta in the lattice structure are already under compression and their lengths are controlled by the compression, lengths of sides of la deformed latticework square will be automatically adjusted to suit the required shape.
Similarly, if it is required to reduce lengths of latticework square’s sides, excess pressure from ends of quanta of matter will be able to reduce their lengths to suit the shape of latticework square. A reduction in length of a quantum of matter will be compensated by increase in its width. An increase in its length will be accompanied by a reduction in its width.
At a stable junction point, with four quanta of matter, each quantum of matter is under stress to move in line with its neighbor and form quanta-chain. Such motion is prevented by presence of four quanta of matter at the junction. Stress between neighboring quanta of matter tends to keep angle between neighboring quanta of matter at equal value..
If left free, a latticework square will automatically seek its most stable state in the shape of a perfect square. This is possible only if all sides of a latticework square are formed by quanta of matter of somewhat equal matter content.
If deformation of latticework square is too great, number of quanta of matter at junctions may be increase to accommodate more quanta of matter or reduced to have lesser number of quanta of matter. In these cases, geometrical shape of latticework squares may be altered temporarily. In this state, the lattice structure remains under stress as long as the deformation remains in the lattice structure.
Tendency of latticework squares and hence that of lattice structure to strive towards stable state, endows a lattice structure with its inherent property to strive towards isotropic, homogeneous and serene state. All deformations are opposed by equal and opposite stabilizing efforts.

Tuesday, June 14, 2011

Formation of lattice structure

If there are more than two quanta of matter in contact with each other (in the same spatial dimension, at a place), interactions due to adhesion between their matter contents at points of direct contacts between them, may move all quanta of matter so that their ends meet at a point in space to form a junction. Inter-quanta adhesion will further move the quanta of matter angularly in common plane, so that all quanta of matter meeting at a junction settle at equal angular difference between adjacent quanta of matter.
Each quantum of matter at every junction is capable to join another junction at its other end. Only stipulation is that all quanta of matter, joined by junctions are in the same spatial plane. Once, any two quanta of matter form a junction, all further additions to the junction will be in the same spatial plane. First two quanta of matter, which initiates build up of quanta-chain, determine spatial plane of all associated structures. Numerous junctions, formed at both ends of associated quanta of matter, form a latticework structure in its plane.
Junctions in a regular latticework have to have equal numbers of quanta of matter and they should be of equal lengths. Geometrically, each junction may have three, four or six quanta of matter each. Sections of latticework structure formed by junctions with three quanta of matter each appear in the shape of hexagons. They are structurally very unstable and flaccid. This structure is easily destroyed during deformations of latticework structure. Sections of latticework structure formed by junctions with four quanta of matter each appear in the shape of squares. They are structurally stable and yielding. This structure can withstand reasonable deformation and return to its stable state easily. Sections of latticework structure formed by junctions with six quanta of matter each appear in the shape of triangles. They are structurally very stable and rigid. This structure prevents all reasonable deforming efforts.
Nature chooses latticework structure that is stable and yielding. Latticework structure with four quanta of matter, to every stable junction, is superior construction. Each section of this latticework structure, which may be called a latticework square, has one quantum of matter as its side. In its stable and homogeneous state, sides of a latticework square are of equal length. During deformations, sides of latticework squares may change their lengths and the square may change its shape accordingly.

Friday, June 3, 2011

Quanta-chain

During lengthening process of a free quantum of matter, its ends may come in contact with other quanta of matter, which happens to be in its spatial dimension. Under such condition, the lengthening process of the quantum of matter is restricted, in the direction of second quantum of matter. Matter contents of the quanta of matter come in direct contact in the same spatial dimension. As magnitude of adhesion between their matter contents (across their perimeters) is less than the magnitude of adhesion within each of their matter contents, their matter contents cannot merge. If a lengthening-quantum of matter encounters other quanta of matter in other spatial dimensions, it will not be restricted in its growth.
Adhesive effort between matter contents of two quanta of matter (in direct contact) tends to keep the quanta of matter, pressing into each other. If the direction of this adhesive effort is perpendicular to the body of any one of the quanta of matter, they will remain in an equilibrium state. Should the direction of adhesive effort differ from being perpendicular to the body of any one of the quanta of matter, it may be considered as combination of two resolved components. One component, which is perpendicular to the body of any one of quanta of matter, keeps the quanta of matter pressed into each other. While, other component of adhesive effort tends to move one quantum of matter (whose body is at an angle to the body of the other) towards one end of the other quantum of matter. This is the most primary instance of induced motion in nature.
Adhesive effort between two quanta of matter (in direct contact) tends to move either one or both of quanta of matter, towards each other’s ends, where together the quanta of matter form a junction and attempt to mutually turn their bodies to bring their (single-dimensional) bodies in a straight line. In this manner, free quanta of matter in space tend to form single-dimensional chains.
Due to frequent ruptures of these quanta-chains and availability of free quanta of matter (in space) to migrate into ruptured 1D quanta-chain, there are far too many quanta of matter in any single dimensional quanta-chain. Excess number of quanta of matter in a quanta-chain compels all constituent quanta of matter in the quanta-chain to be held at reduced lengths in their single-dimensional status. Tendency of quanta of matter in the chain, to grow in length, keeps all constituent quanta of matter in quanta-chains under compression from their ends. Normally (in current state of universe), quanta of matter in a quanta-chain are maintained at the brink of their growth into second spatial dimension. Should a discontinuity develop in the quanta-chain, inherent property of constituent quanta of matter enable quanta-chain to grow in length. Thus, it becomes an inherent property of quanta-chains to grow (lengthen) into any discontinuity in its spatial dimension.

Sunday, May 29, 2011

Co-existence of quanta of matter at a point

A quantum of matter has certain matter content. Matter is continuous and incompressible. Since matter is the substance, a quantum of matter has objective (real) existence in space. A quantum of matter can express its individuality only in spatial dimension(s) of its existence. No real entities can exist in the same volumetric space. Therefore, no two quanta of matter can exist in the same space in the same spatial dimension(s). However, quanta of matter in different spatial dimensions but passing through the same point, in space, coexist at the point.
Practically, a quantum of matter (in any dimensional status), exists in all three spatial dimensions. When its measurement in any one spatial dimension is too small to be intelligibly measured by 3D beings, we must say that the quantum of matter exists only in two spatial dimensions. The quantum of matter may be qualified as a two-dimensional object. Similarly, when its measurements in any two spatial dimensions are too small to be intelligibly measured by 3D beings, we must say that the quantum of matter exists only in one spatial dimension. The quantum of matter may be qualified as a single-dimensional object.
A quantum of matter in its free state, tends to grow and exists only in one spatial dimension. External pressure from ends of a 1D quantum of matter can reduce its measurements in first-spatial-dimension and make its matter-body to grow into second-spatial-dimension, until it becomes a perfect circle in a plane. Further, if identical external pressure is applied all around the periphery of a 2D quantum of matter (in its second-spatial-dimensional state), its matter-body is compelled to grow into third-spatial-dimension, while reducing measurements in other two spatial dimensions. Growth into third-spatial-dimension will continue until shape of quantum of matter becomes a perfect sphere. As soon as a quantum grows in to its third-spatial-dimension, it becomes a 3D matter body. This is the stage of creation of 3D matter, in nature. We, as 3D beings, can associate only with 3D matter. Additional pressure applied all around volumetric periphery of a 3D quantum of matter may reduce its volume and compel the quantum of matter to grow into a fourth-spatial-dimension, about which we know nothing.
Since, a quantum of matter has objective existence in its spatial dimension; no other quantum of matter can occupy its space, whichever spatial-dimensional status it may be. However, two quanta of matter in different spatial dimensions have objective reality in different spatial-dimensions. Hence, each of them should be able to have objective reality at the point occupied by both of them. That is, quanta of matter, in different spatial dimensions should be able to co-exist.
As long as its own dimensional space is not occupied, a quantum of matter is able to co-exist with other quanta at a point in space. Two 1D quanta of matter occupying the same point in space, essentially, have to be at an angle to each other. Their negligible widths (as and when they are developed) have to be in different planes. Since they are 1D objects, they cannot extend into each other’s spatial-dimension so as to create discontinuity for other’s existence. Since two quanta of matter are in different planes and crossing each other at a point in space (they are in different spatial dimensions), they do not intrude into each other’s spatial-dimensions. Similarly, a quantum of matter can also co-exist with a 2D matter body (its thickness is zero) in different planes. However, as all spatial-dimensions are occupied by a 3D matter body, a quantum of matter will be unable to coexist with a 3D quantum of matter. It will have to remain outside 3D matter.
A 1D quantum of matter exists only in its own one spatial dimension. Hence, a 1D quantum of matter is able to coexist with another 1D quantum of matter in all spatial dimensions other than its own. A 2D quantum of matter exists in a plane. Another 1D or 2D quantum of matter is able to coexist with it, in all spatial planes other than the plane of the 2D quantum of matter. If located in the plane of the 2D quantum of matter, the 1D quantum of matter will maintain its individuality and independence as a separate entity, even if it is a component of a 2D body, constituted by one or more 2D quanta of matter. A 3D body exists in all spatial planes passing through the body. A 1D quantum of matter is unable to coexist with the 3D matter body or any of its quanta, in any of these planes. Even if the 1D quantum of matter is a constituent part of a 3D matter body, it will keep its independence and integrity as a separate entity, within the 3D matter body.
Quanta of matter preserve their individuality under all circumstances. However, in exceptional circumstances of accidents, nothing prevents a quantum of matter from parting into two separate entities. If the attempt, to part a quantum of matter into two, may develop and persist for longer time, the quantum of matter may part into two individual quanta of matter. Another possibility is that of a quantum of matter with exceptionally large matter content. Time required for an exceptionally large quantum of matter to move its whole matter content to one side of a parting intrusion is too long, its matter-body will split into two separate quanta of matter.

Monday, May 23, 2011

Stable length of a Quantum of matter

Self-elongation compels a two-dimensional quantum of matter to reduce its tangible measurements to single spatial-dimension. As this process go on, more and more of its periphery approaches to become parallel to major axis of its elliptical body. If matter content of a quantum of matter is sufficient, a stage may reach, when a part of quantum of matter’s periphery between two adjacent points and similar part of its periphery on geometrically opposite side become parallel to each other and parallel to major axis of matter content. At this stage adhesion between opposite sides of periphery being much greater, these points tend to approach each other at a faster rate. Such motion may create identical inward dents at these points on the periphery.
Consider a hypothetical case, where matter content of a quantum of matter is extremely large. As soon as dents appear on their periphery, adhesions at these points (expect at the middle of the dents) are no more towards each other, but in the direction of perpendiculars to periphery at the dents. Dents will widen and gradually separate matter contents on either side into two separate quanta of matter. This possibility reduces probability for quanta of matter with very large matter contents, in nature.
Presence of other quanta of matter in space interferes with unlimited self-elongation of any quantum of matter. If these quanta of matter, in the same spatial dimension as the self-elongating quantum of matter, can restrict the growth of self-elongating quantum of matter before dents are formed on its periphery, it can be preserved as a stable entity. This is usually the case. Higher external efforts than what are needed are usually available from the ends of a self-elongating quantum of matter. Should magnitudes of these efforts reduce, the quantum of matter is able to grow more in its single-dimensional space. Should magnitudes of these efforts increase, the quantum of matter grows into two-dimensional space.
Since, the universe is in a steady state; all available matter is already divided/reduced into quanta of matter of stable size. Average matter content of quanta of matter in the universe is suitable for its current state. No further division of quanta of matter or its matter content is necessary. As there is no definite mechanism to restrict matter contents of quanta of matter to exact quantity, quanta of matter may differ from each other in quantities of their matter contents. All quanta of matter, other than few of those constitute three-dimensional matter particles; have somewhat identical quantity of matter in them. They are in their single-dimensional status (on the verge of conversion into two-dimensional status) with identical lengths as their tangible measurements.
Uniformity and regularity of shape of universal medium is the result of uniform matter contents of constituent quanta of matter. Any quanta of matter with higher/lower than average matter content create disturbances in universal medium that may lead towards creation of 3D matter particles from universal medium. This tendency removes any quanta of matter with non-uniform matter contents from universal medium.

Tuesday, May 3, 2011

Self-elongation of a Quantum of matter

Matter content of a (postulated) quantum of matter has an adhesive property. This property is different from ‘attraction between parts’, as we usually understand adhesion. Adjacent points within the matter content tend to stick together. (A point may be understood as an area/volume of matter, whose area/volume is negligible). This tendency is not carried beyond nearest points in the matter content. There is no adhesion directly between two points, interposed by another point. Therefore, magnitude of adhesion between any two points within the matter content is always the same, irrespective of distance between them or matter content present between the points.
We shall consider a hypothetical (free-floating) critically stable two-dimensional quantum of matter. This particle exists only in two spatial dimensions. It is a perfectly circular sheet of matter in a plane. It has no tangible thickness. Every point on its periphery experience adhesion of equal magnitude towards the centre of its circular body. As long as directions of adhesion at every point on its circular perimeter are directed towards centre of the body, the quantum of matter remains in critically stable 2D spatial state.
Even a slight change in the shape of quantum of matter’s circular body changes directions of adhesion available at various points on its periphery. There will be only two sets (diametrically opposite) of peripheral points, where adhesion is directed towards the centre point of the body. At all other peripheral points, adhesion will be directed along perpendicular to tangent at that point.
Slightly misshaped circle is an ellipse. It has two coordinate axes. Components of adhesion at every point on the periphery of an elliptical-shaped 2D quantum of matter, directed towards major axis of the ellipse will be greater in magnitude than those directed towards minor axis of the ellipse. Perimeter of the elliptical 2D quantum of matter tends to approach towards its major axis. Such deformation of quantum of matter increases differences in magnitudes of adhesion at peripheral points at an accelerating rate. As a result matter content of the quantum of matter squeezes itself to constrict its body’s existence in second-spatial dimension. Constriction of its existence in second-spatial dimension compels the body of quanta of matter to grow in first-spatial dimension. This character appears as its self-elongation.
Similar phenomenon reduces a three-dimensional quantum of matter in to two-dimensional object. In free space, a quantum of matter reduces to single-dimensional object of infinite length. Since, there is no free space with respect to a single quantum of matter, this is a hypothetical consideration.

Sunday, December 19, 2010

Properties of quantum of matter

Due to the adhesive property of its matter content, a free quantum of matter tends to grow in one spatial dimension, while reducing its measurements in all other spatial dimensions. ‘Self-adhesion’ of matter (in a quantum of matter) produces character of ‘self-constriction’. Matter content of a quantum of matter, in any spatial dimension; tend to reduce its magnitude. Since matter cannot be compressed, reduction of its measurement in one spatial dimension is bound to increase its spatial dimension in another spatial dimension. Thus, self-constriction of a quantum of matter gives rise to its ‘self-elongating’ character.
A quantum of matter has a natural tendency, necessitated by adhesive property of its matter content, to grow in its own single spatial dimension. If left free, in free space, a quantum of matter will grow in length indefinitely, while reducing magnitudes in other spatial dimensions.
Even though, spatial dimensions of a quantum of matter, other than its single spatial dimension, are negligibly small, a quantum of matter has positive existence in all three spatial dimensions. Thus, a free quantum of matter is a one-dimensional matter-body with positive existence in all spatial dimensions. It has a body and two ends. We consider a point to be a dimension-less entity. Similarly a line has no breadth or thick ness and a plane has no thickness. At the same time, a point and a plane do exist in our 3D world.
Reducing the length of a free quantum of matter, by external efforts, compels it to grow into second spatial dimension. Similarly, reducing the area of a 2D quantum of matter, in its spatial plane, by external effort compels it to grow into the third spatial dimension. It is at this juncture that real 3D matter, as we know, is created.
Every thing else in nature are made up of quanta of matter and all diverse matter bodies and their different characteristic properties and apparent interactions are extension of basic adhesive property of matter content in quanta of matter.

Friday, November 26, 2010

Quantum of matter

A postulated ‘quantum of matter’ is the basis of ‘Hypothesis on MATTER’. Its substance is provided by matter, it contains. It is a very small bit of matter. A quantum of matter is an object of real matter that has positive existence in space. It has its existence in all spatial dimensions, however small such measurements may be. Unfortunately, we have no measuring system to measure matter content of a body. We have to relay on derived units, like mass and weight to approximate magnitude of matter content of a body. Different quanta of matter may contain different quantities of matter.
Matter content, at nearest points (within a quantum of matter or between quanta of matter in direct contact in the same spatial dimensions), has an adhesive property (a tendency to merge). Matter content of a quantum of matter tends to maintain its integrity under all conditions. Each quantum of matter is an independent matter-body and it keeps its individuality. There are infinite numbers of quanta of matter and they fill the entire space in definite structural forms.
Quanta of matter are perpetual entities. They cannot be destroyed or created. Quanta of matter, existing in different spatial dimensions and intersecting at a point are able to co-exist at the point of their intersection. They cannot intersect in the same spatial dimensions.
In its free state, a quantum of matter is a one-dimensional body with length as its only tangible measurement. Although it may be understood as one-dimensional object, it exists in space as a real body. As a real object, it has its existence in all spatial dimensions. In its one-dimensional status, its measurements in all higher spatial dimensions are negligible compared to its length.
Although quanta of matter in their 1D status are real matter bodies with positive existence in all three spatial dimensions, 3D rational beings are unable to appreciate their real existence in 3D spatial system. Their measurements in all spatial dimensions are too small to be tangible. Because of this difficulty, we may consider quanta of matter in their 1D and 2D states as functional entities.
Majority of quanta of matter in nature are of somewhat equal matter content. Universal medium and basic 3D matter particles are made solely of quanta of matter. Entire space (outside 3D matter particles) is filled with quanta of matter in definite structural formations – the 2D energy fields. There are no voids. Any gap in space is immediately filled up 2D energy fields.
No other imaginary particles or assumed properties are envisaged in this concept. All superior 3D matter bodies and their diverse properties are natural extensions of characteristic properties of quanta of matter. Creation, development, destruction and apparent interactions of all matter bodies strictly follow ‘cause and effect’ relation. There are no actions at a distance through empty space.

Wednesday, November 17, 2010

Universal medium in ‘Hypothesis on MATTER’

‘Hypothesis on MATTER’ proposes a new universal medium. It is made up of real matter in the form of (postulated) ‘quanta of matter’. Quanta of matter are the only one type of entities postulated in this concept. All other bodies, functions and characteristic properties of diverse matter bodies are developed from and by quanta of matter. In order to distinguish the proposed universal medium from other forms of mediums in the past, it is called as ‘2D energy fields’. 2D energy fields are formed from quanta of matter by definite mechanism, developed from inherent properties of (postulated) quanta of matter. Since 2D energy fields fill the entire space, their constituent quanta of matter fill the entire space, outside 3D matter particles. 2D energy fields have all the required properties for an ideal (universal) medium. ‘2D energy fields’ are real ‘material objects’ and together they form ideal all-pervading universal medium that can be substituted for space. 2D energy fields extend to infinity in all directions.
‘2D energy fields’ is an arrangement of infinite number of latticework structures formed by quanta of matter, separately in each plane. A 2D energy field exists and extends infinitely in all directions in its own spatial plane. All possible spatial planes in the universe contain one 2D energy field, each. A 2D energy field has definite structure and it derives all its characteristic properties from constituent quanta of matter. Being the sole occupant of space, except 3D matter, 2D energy fields have to create 3D matter particles from and by itself. ‘2D energy fields’ also has to maintain the stability and integrity of all such 3D matter particles created and superior matter bodies formed by 3D matter particles. Apparent interactions, by the help of 2D energy fields, combine and group 3D matter particles to form diverse fundamental matter particles and larger macro bodies.
Having a structured universal medium, in place of form-less and imaginary space has many advantages. An all encompassing universal medium ensures direct contact between every 3D matter particles in the universe. This avoids the assumption of ‘action at a distance through empty space’. 2D energy fields in all possible planes, extending infinitely in all directions and filling the entire space, together, provide an all-encompassing and real universal medium. It becomes an inherent property of ‘2D energy fields’ to be self-stabilizing, isotropic, homogeneous and serene. A steady universal medium provides an absolute reference for all actions and locations of 3D matter bodies in space. Since the universal medium has a structure, it can deform, contract or expand. It acts as the originator of all actions on 3D matter bodies and apparent interactions between 3D matter bodies. 3D matter is inert; it has no ability to act or move on its own. A universal medium, structured with real matter particles, can logically explain all actions and characteristic properties of diverse matter bodies in nature.

Friday, November 5, 2010

States of existence of matter

Matter provides substance to all real entities. A three-dimensional matter particle contains matter without voids in it. Whole space, occupied by a 3D matter particle, is occupied by matter.
Real universal medium is also made up of matter. Universal medium fills the entire space outside 3D matter particles. There are no voids in it either. Hence, entire space outside 3D matter particles is also filled with matter.
In order to satisfy these requirements, matter-density of a 3D matter particle and matter-density of universal medium, outside 3D matter particle have to be the same.
As 3D matter particles and universal medium have the same matter-density, entire space (universal medium along with 3D matter particles in it) should form a single block of matter of uniform matter-density and of infinite extent and volume. Matter cannot be compressed beyond the matter-density of a 3D matter particle or that of universal medium. A matter-body of zero volume and infinite mass (singularity) is impossible to achieve.
Yet, while 3D matter particles and macro bodies formed by them are tangible and can be sensed, universal medium and its matter-components should remain intangible and hidden from 3D rational beings. This shows that with respect to rational beings, matter can exist in different states of existence. In certain states of existence, 3D rational beings can observe matter (in the form of matter bodies) and in certain states of existence, 3D rational beings can not observe or sense matter (when it is in the form of universal medium).
3D rational beings observe and consider only 3D matter bodies as real entities. For this a matter body has to be tangible and observable in 3D spatial system. To be tangible or observable, a 3D matter body has to have certain measurements in all three spatial dimensions. If dimensions of 3D matter body in any or all of three spatial dimensions become too small to be tangible or observable by standards of 3D rational beings, they could no more be considered as (real) 3D entities. However, since these matter bodies continue to exist in all spatial dimensions, they are real entities. Although these matter bodies have their existence in all spatial dimensions, rational beings will not be able to observe or sense them, only because their measurements in one or more spatial dimension(s) is/are intangible by 3D standards.
If the dimensional measurement of a matter body becomes intangible in any one of three spatial dimensions, it may be considered as a two-dimensional matter body. If the dimensional measurements of a matter body become intangible in any two of three spatial dimensions, it may be considered as a single-dimensional matter body. Therefore, it is possible for matter to remain real and be able to exist in 1D, 2D or 3D states.
In its 1D and 2D states, a matter body is hidden from 3D rational beings. Although these matter bodies are real, as they are hidden, 3D rational beings may consider them to be functional entities. Only in its 3D state, a matter body becomes real and observable to 3D rational beings. However, this does not prevent matter in any spatial dimension to be a real entity.

Monday, October 18, 2010

Ideal universal medium

A ‘universal medium’ that has all desirable properties of aether but has no disadvantages of the same may be proposed to replace (imaginary) functional entities like; space, space-time, fields, force-carrying particles, concentrated forms of energy, imaginary entities with negative existence, vibrating strings, mathematical constructs, etc., currently used to facilitate conceptual explanations on various physical phenomena. Then the terms ‘universal medium’ and ‘space’ can be used synonymously. The term ‘space’ (and other functional entities used in place of space) will then mean the ‘universal medium’ and vice versa.
An all-encompassing medium of matter may be envisaged to fill the entire space, outside three-dimensional matter particles, including inter-particle space in a macro body. To fill entire space is to have positive existence in space in all spatial dimensions, without voids in it. To have positive existence, the universal medium has to be a real object. Reality of an object is provided by its substance. In nature, matter alone can provide substance. Hence this universal medium has to have matter content. It can be made up of matter or matter in the form of small matter particles. To be made up of small matter particles is to have definite structure. Contents and structure endows an object with its properties. Hence the universal medium has to have definite structure and properties, derived from its constituent matter particles.
A three-dimensional matter particle contains matter without voids in it. Whole space, occupied by a 3D matter particle, is occupied by matter. Universal medium fills the entire space outside 3D matter particles. There are no voids in it. Hence, entire space outside 3D matter particles is also filled with matter. In order to satisfy this requirement, matter-density of a 3D matter particle and matter-density of universal medium, outside 3D matter particle should be the same. Yet, while 3D matter particles and bodies formed by them are tangible and can be sensed, universal medium and its components should remain intangible and hidden for 3D rational beings. Entire universal medium along with 3D matter particles in it, together, should form a single block of matter of uniform matter-density and of infinite extent and volume. Matter cannot be compressed beyond the matter-density of a 3D matter particle or that of universal medium. A matter-body of zero volume and infinite mass (singularity) is impossible to achieve.
A universal medium should be made up of real matter particles and under a definite mechanism of formation. All its actions, interactions and properties will have to be derived from the properties of constituent matter particles. Since matter alone can form a real universal medium and diverse 3D matter bodies, all properties of both of these entities should be derived from the most basic matter particles in nature. No assumed particles, imaginary properties or mysterious interactions should be necessary to understand any physical phenomenon. Actions of basic matter particles in the universal medium should be able to account for all physical phenomena in nature; from creation and sustenance of universal medium itself to interactions between 3D objects; from creation and sustenance of fundamental particles to cosmological events; gravity to nuclear interactions; etc.
A universal medium should be a self-sustaining material body. By its inherent properties, the universal medium should strive towards homogeneity, isotropy and serenity; all by itself. All ‘natural forces’, apparent interactions between 3D matter bodies and diverse properties of 3D matter bodies in various forms should be extensions of these inherent properties. Inherent properties of universal medium should be derived from the properties of universal medium’s constituent matter particles.
All 3D matter particles (and superior bodies made up of 3D matter particles) should exist within the universal medium. Universal medium should serve as interlink between every 3D matter particle in the universe. Since there are no direct contacts between 3D matter bodies and all 3D bodies are in contact with universal medium, the universal medium should serve as an intermediary for all apparent interactions between 3D matter bodies. 3D matter is inert. It cannot cause its own changes or displacements. All actions on 3D matter bodies or those actions which appear as actions by 3D matter bodies, in nature, should be performed by universal medium outside 3D matter particles. Universal medium should contain all 3D matter bodies and hence form a common link between them. Each 3D matter body should be acted upon by the universal medium separately. Simultaneous actions by universal medium on different 3D matter bodies will appear as an interaction between them. Having a universal medium that is in contact with every 3D matter particle in the universe does away with the illogical assumption of ‘actions at a distance through empty space’.
Since the universal medium preexists all 3D bodies and no 3D bodies exists outside universal medium, it will fulfill the role of a container that is logically prior to its contents. Since 3D matter bodies do not exist outside universal medium, the universal medium has to create 3D matter particles out of itself, sustain them in their free states or in combination in the form of self-sustaining superior 3D matter particles and macro bodies. To maintain its own stability, it will be necessary for the universal medium to create/destroy 3D matter bodies cyclically and in different localities in the universe. This should be done by gradually destroying 3D macro bodies in certain regions to revert their matter contents back into the universal medium, while creating 3D macro bodies from matter contents from it, in other regions. This will not only maintain the integrity and stability of universal medium, it will also regulate entropy of the universe within limits. A stable universal medium should be able to sustain a steady-state of universe, perpetually.
Rational beings are three-dimensional macro bodies and exist in three-dimensional spatial system. They are able to sense only three-dimensional objects. Since the universal medium or its components remain intangible and hidden to 3D rational beings, they should have their status in one-dimensional or two-dimensional spatial systems. Three-dimensional rational beings will be unable to sense them directly. Although basic matter particles have real existence in space, magnitudes of their spatial dimensions will be too small to be tangible or sensed by three-dimensional spatial standards. Thus, universal medium or its constituents in 1D or 2D states will remain hidden for all practical purposes. However, it could manifest its presence by actions on 3D matter bodies.
All actions require impetus. Impetus is the ‘ability to do work’. A matter body contains nothing but matter, which is incapable to do work. Hence, the ability to do work should be stored outside matter bodies but in association with them. Universal medium, surrounding 3D matter particles or in and about a 3D macro matter body is an ideal place to store the ‘ability to do work’ or the ‘work’ itself. In order to act on matter bodies, the universal medium should have ability to act. That is it should be able to transfer work from one region to another.
All actions are recognized by motion (displacement) of 3D matter bodies. Macro bodies move by sequential displacements of their matter particles, starting from the point of application of external effort. Matter particles, nearest to the ‘force-applying mechanism’, move first. This, in turn, compresses universal medium between the displaced matter particle and the matter particle in front. Inherent property of stability causes the compressed part of universal medium to return to its original form by expanding. This expansion can be achieved only by pushing the matter particles away from each other. Since the matter particles at the point of application of external effort are displaced forward and held in place, matter particles in front have no options but to move forward. Similar actions, between matter particles of a macro body cause its displacement during an action by external effort. ‘Energy-transfer’ in or by macro bodies, essentially requires a universal medium between their constituent matter particles.
‘Energy’ can also be transferred through space in the form of invisible disturbances, like: ‘electromagnetic waves’, ‘field-disturbances’, etc. Since no displacements of 3D matter particles are involved in this process, the universal medium, itself, has to act as an agent of ‘energy-transfer’ by its own compression and expansion.
A universal medium should be a stable but deformable real entity. Deformations are displacements and hence tangible. Displacements in universal medium are ‘work’ and it is tangible. A tangible entity is real. Hence, work is a real entity. ‘Ability to do work’ could be the stress produced in the universal medium due a strain/distortion in it. Ability to act or to do work is called ‘energy’. Hence, universal medium acts as storage for ‘energy’. Unlike stress, displacement is tangible and hence real. Stress accompanies strain in a stable system. Hence, the strain in the universal medium about a matter body is the ‘work-done’ and associated stress is its ‘energy’. Energy has no independent existence and it is a functional entity. It appears as a shadow of work-done.

Saturday, October 9, 2010

Alternatives for Aether

Everyday experience of natural phenomena shows material things are moved by contact between a ‘force-applying body’ and a ‘force-receiving body’. Thus, logically, we came to conclude that for any action to take place between two real 3D matter-bodies there must be a contact between them. Nature of this contact is expressed as action of an effort (force) between these bodies. Any ‘cause and effect’ without a discernable contact between participating 3D matter-bodies, or an ‘action at a distance through empty space,’ contradicts common sense and has been an unacceptable notion since earliest of time. Such actions are usually credited to super-natural phenomena. Aether was discovered during the heyday of aether-theories. According to which all space is permeated by a medium capable of transmitting efforts (forces) between 3D matter-particles. The electric fields and magnetic fields were interpreted as descriptions of the state of strain/stress of the aether, so that the location of stored energy in space was like as it would be in a compressed spring. With the abandonment of the (vague) aether-theories, following the rise of relativity theory, this imaginary model ceased to have validity. Whenever the concept of space is unable to logically explain any physical phenomena or the nature of transmission of certain actions and effects over a distance is not understood, even today, the aether (in the forms of various fields or mysterious force-carrying particles or mathematical constructs) is resorted to as a conceptual solution of the transmitting medium. This is because an all-encompassing universal medium is essential to destroy the myth of ‘action at a distance through empty space’, which is the worst illogical assumption of modern science. Currently different types of substitutes are used instead of space. However, descriptions of how these ‘aether-substitutes’ function remain vague, but its existence in the forms of various fields or imaginary particles or mathematical constructs is required by common sense and thus not questioned. Different types of fields, concentrated forms of energy, imaginary entities with negative existence, force-carrying particles, structure-less space capable of distortions, mathematical constructs, etc. are used in various theories. Each of these entities is different from others and suits only a particular theory. Each of them proposes different types of fields or structure with vague properties of aether. They have no common properties. They seem to exist without existence. They are mainly used for conceptual explanations and mathematical treatments of theories concerned. Such tendencies have taken physics far from conceptual understanding and caused its heavy dependence on mathematical analysis. Mathematics may be a very good tool to understand physics, but it should not dictate (illogical) physical theories.

Tuesday, September 28, 2010

Aether as a substitute for space

There is no logical argument for a definition of space based on imaginary concepts. That is why, from early time, it was believed that a real entity, namely (different kinds of) aether, filled the entire space. In such theories, aether (with real existence) replaced non-existent space by filling it entirely. Mode of filling or mechanism of existence of these entities were never discussed. It was simply believed that the undefined aether work in place of unacceptable space. Therefore, all properties originally assigned to the functional entity of space could become properties of aether, a real entity. Although the aether had an ambiguous form but it was regarded as a real entity. Since the aether was real, it could deform, move or otherwise interact with other 3D material objects. This seems to have made all actions more logical and easy to understand. Unfortunately, no one could describe a satisfactory structure or properties for any of the different kinds of aether, proposed. Different types of aether were envisaged at different times in the past. The aether was assumed to be weightless, transparent, frictionless, chemically or physically undetectable and literally permeating all matter and space. ‘Aether theories’ met with increasing difficulties as the nature of light and the structure of matter became better defined, even if it was on imaginary basis. Since there was no accepted definition of aether, scientists concentrated their effort to find and measure an effect, the aether may make on other 3D macro bodies. For this they assumed, when a large macro body moves through aether, the macro body should essentially experience a drag due to the friction between the two. Aether theory was seriously weakened (1881) by the Michelson-Morley experiment, which was designed specifically to detect resistance to the motion of the Earth through the ether. Experiments showed that there was no such tangible effect. Finally, when aether’s existence could not be proved experimentally, by experiments based on illogical theories, majority of scientists abandoned the concept of (real) aether. They returned to more mysterious concepts of space and fields. Aether could have won the day if it could be explained that it is a real entity with definite structure, in direct contact with matter-bodies and it could move enclosed matter-bodies without appreciably moving itself but at the same time without any relative motion between moving body and the aether.

Wednesday, September 1, 2010

Space

Space is treated differently in different aspects. In physics; the space is usually understood as “the boundless three-dimensional extent of universe, where all material objects and organisms (including rational beings like ourselves) exist and in which objects and events occur”. All material objects in the universe have their relative as well as absolute positions and motions in the space. Space, itself, has no material existence. It cannot provide sense-experience to rational beings. In physical descriptions, only an entity that has physical existence can be sensed or extend or shrink. As no entity with physical existence is mentioned in the definition of space, space is an imaginary (functional) entity. A functional entity has no objective reality and can fulfill only the functions assigned to it by the proposer. It exists only in the mind of proposer and in mathematical analyses. Space is a functional entity that serves the purpose of locating various material bodies in it and where rational beings relate themselves with each other. The extent, outside material bodies, becomes the space. In contemporary physics, the imaginary space is able to dilate or contract as required even without objective reality. Currently, empty space is endowed with many of physical properties that a material object may have while it is also considered as absolute vacuum. All spatial concepts are related to contact-experiences of (matter) bodies. This has made it necessary to envisage an entity independent of bodies and yet embodying their locations. This entity, outside material bodies yet enclosing them, came to be understood as space. When a rational mind envisages a real object, it logically pre-supposes a place for its existence. This is understood not by sensing such a place but by the necessity of a place for the existence for any real body to exist. As a result, the notion of space is somewhat incoherent because it professes to be a container that is logically prior to its contents. Space turns out, in practice, to be merely an indefinitely extensible collection of its contents. Everything that occupies space falls within this wider spatial context. Space denotes a property by virtue of which different bodies occupy different positions in the universe. The possibility of arranging an unlimited number of matter-bodies next to one another denotes that the space is infinite in its extent. However far one can go, matter-bodies are there and beyond. If the space, outside the most basic 3D matter-particles, is filled entirely by a real universal medium, the medium and the space become synonymous. Space is no more an imaginary void, but a real medium, which contains all three-dimensional bodies in nature. Now, since the universal medium has a structure and constituents, it is able to deform and undergo all actions normally the imaginary space is assumed to perform. The universal medium can also substitute for various types of fields, used in present theories. Since the universal medium encloses all three-dimensional bodies, it acts as a direct link between any two such bodies and the assumption of ‘action at a distance through empty space’ is not required any more. The concept, proposed in the book, ‘MATTER (re-examined)’, considers space as an imaginary container, envisaged by rational beings as and when they think about three-dimensional material objects. It extends infinitely in all directions from the observer. In order to make space a real entity, it has to have substance that provides it with objective reality and positive existence. In material world, existence of matter is nearest to absolute truth. Therefore, in order to be real, space has to be made up of matter. When space is real, it can behave like any other real entity.

Friday, August 6, 2010

Matter

All real entities are materialistic. They are material objects made out of matter. Matter is the stuff that gives real entities their materialistic existence. Matter is a physical substance that occupies space and can be perceived by one or more senses. Matter is distinct from qualities, properties, thoughts, mind and spirit. Only the matter is real. All others are functional. Having matter content as its substance, makes an entity a real object that can be perceived by sensory organs. In (Aristotelian and Scholastic) philosophy, matter is in itself undifferentiated and formless and which, when subjected to change and development, receives form and becomes substance. Hence, matter is the substance any physical object consists or is composed of or simply matter is something that exists in space.
At different stages of history, the concept of matter had many variations, in the light of scientific knowledge prevailing at the time of what are considered as basic building blocks and their interactions. At one stage, atoms were considered as basic building blocks and all matter were considered to be constituted by atoms. Later, matter was viewed as solid, massive and movable particles. Still later, smaller fundamental constituents of matter were discovered to change the constitution of matter. Currently, in physics and chemistry, matter is assumed to exhibit both wave-like and particle-like properties, the so-called wave-particle duality. Often matter is disregarded and one of its attributes, the mass, is accorded the status of reality.
Matter is the ‘material substance that constitutes the observable universe and, together with energy, forms the basis of all objective phenomena’ (encyclopedia Britannica). All matter share certain fundamental properties. Currently, matter is (generally) regarded to have certain properties, as understood from observation of nature. Every physical entity is assumed to have properties of mass, gravitation, inertia, etc. All primary properties of matter are amenable to mathematical description. Nevertheless, its secondary properties (or qualities) are not considered mathematically. Although, mass of a body is a measure of its inertia, it is commonly taken as a measure of the amount of material contained in the body. Matter in bulk may have several states of existence in nature. A common definition of ‘matter is anything that has mass and occupies a volume’.
Matter has many definitions in physics, but the most common one currently used is that it is any substance, which has mass and occupies space and exists in one of the physical states. All physical objects are composed of matter, in the form of atoms, which are in turn composed of protons, deuterons, neutrons, electrons, etc. Currently, photons are assumed to have no mass, so they are an example of something in present-day physics, which is not comprised of matter. They are also not considered as objects, in the traditional sense, as they cannot remain static. In cosmology, the term matter includes dark matter and dark energy, concepts used to explain some anomalous phenomena observed in the universe. These exotic forms of ‘matter’ do not refer to matter as substance that occupies space but rather to unknown entities of mass and energy.
Definition of matter is revised in light of quantum mechanics, where the concept of ‘having mass’, and ‘occupying space’ do not have the same meaning as in everyday life. Some similar theories hold the view that bodies are made of several substances and the properties of matter (including, mass and volume) are determined not only by the constituent substances themselves, but by how they interact. In other words, matter is made up of interacting ‘building blocks’. According to special theory of relativity, matter (considered as mass) and energy are equivalent. Accordingly, mass (matter) can be converted into energy and energy into mass (matter). Usually, matter is ignored altogether in this theory. Mass usurps its place.

Wednesday, July 14, 2010

Substance

The term ‘matter’, traditionally refers to the substance that all objects are made of. One common way to identify this substance is through its physical properties. The concept of substance, in its generic sense in any philosophical system, is those things, which (according to that system) are the foundational or fundamental entities of reality. They are the basic substances from which everything else is constructed. In certain philosophy, impressions and ideas are the substances, for the same reason. Etc. Although in different senses, all philosophical systems acknowledge existence of substances as a particular kind of basic entity. Some philosophical theories acknowledge them as such and others do not. Conception of substance as basic entity derives from our notion of individuality of ‘thing’ or ‘object’, in contrast with ‘properties’ of entities and ‘events’. In its physical sense, substance is that which exists in itself and does not depend upon anything else for its existence. Attributes or characteristic properties are inherent in (and about) substances and depend on the substance for their existence. Existence is recognised by rational mind. This may be the result of correct or incorrect sensory perceptions or it may be by mere thought-process. If existence is recognised by sensory perception, in order to exist, the substance needs a place. Hence, it is essential for a rational mind to presuppose a space for the existence of a real entity. This is how we created the functional entity of space in the universe. Space is purely a functional entity. Its sole function is to provide a place of existence for real objects. It has neither a form, nor a structure nor physical properties. Such a body cannot move, distort or act. Functional entities do not require space for their existence. They exist in the minds of perceivers. Rational beings perceive entities by their sensory organs. Perceived information is then processed and compared with previous experiences by rational being’s mind to know and experience the entity and its existence. Existence is always particular and individual. This does not mean that all that is perceived by senses are real. Different sensory organs may perceive same object in different ways. Only one of them corresponds to reality. [A stick, partially dipped in water, may appear by sight as a bend body – an imaginary stick. By touch, the stick would appear in its real shape, a straight body – the real stick. Both, the imaginary stick and the real stick, appear to exist in the same location. If they exist in the same location, surely they cannot be different but the same entity. In this case, the bend stick has no existence but the straight one exists in space. Both the real (straight) stick and the imaginary (bend) stick are perceptions of mind, but by different sensory organs. Real (straight) stick exists in space and the imaginary (bend) stick does not exist in space. Only the real (straight) stick occupies space. It is a real entity. It has positive existence in space. Bend stick, perceived by the rational being is an imaginary entity. It has no existence in space. It exists only in the mind of the perceiver. This is an example of aberration of sensory perceptions.] All entities, which have no real existence in space but have their existence only in the mind of perceiver, are imaginary entities. They are functional and fulfil functions assigned to them by rational beings. One school of philosophy (led by David Hume) denied the existence of substance, using the epistemological principles. They argued that; since all human knowledge must be traced back to sensation, the idea of substance must be also be traced to the same. Since the sensory perceptions themselves cannot provide knowledge of substance, no one can know substance, as a distinct stuff from that of a collection of particular qualities or attributes. Thus, substances are nothing but a collection of simple ideas that are united by the imagination, and have a particular name assigned to them. In its essence, knowledge of the aesthetic object becomes the knowledge of aesthetic experience itself. This school of thought adopts the approach that puts the aesthetic experience first and then examines the aesthetic object as an intentional object of that experience. This consideration is suitable to functional entities like imaginary particles, art forms, etc. Imaginary entities are created by rational beings in their minds and all their attributes are also subscribed by them. A painting is nothing but a collection of canvas and colours. It is the rational mind that attributes its functionality and qualities. However, many scientists, in dealing with modern physics engaged this philosophy to produce exotic theories, based on imaginary particles and mysterious properties, which are acquiescent with complicated mathematical treatments. Simple logical reasoning is not allowed to question their genuineness or logic. See: http://vixra.org/pdf/1802.0086v1.pdf