Wednesday, January 19, 2022

Aether drag

It was the failure to notice an assumed ‘aether drag’ on earth during its motion through space that ended progress in the search for an all-encompassing universal medium. This was unnecessary because the assumption of aether drag itself is unwarranted. As a very large macro body (a central body) rotates, currently it is imagined that the friction caused by this drag in ‘space and time’ tends to affect nearby macro bodies. This fictitious drag is assumed to cause rotation of planetary and satellite bodies of the rotating central body. (See article on ‘Planetary Spin’). Matter has no ability to move on its own. In the explanations, given in the book ‘MATTER (Re-examined)’, it is shown that every basic 3D matter-particle – photon – is moved by an all-encompassing universal medium at the highest possible linear speed. Photons, constituting primary 3D matter particles, move in circular paths within the primary particles. Primary 3D matter particles form fundamental 3D matter particles and superior 3D matter-bodies. A macro body consists of millions of photons, moving in very small circular paths, within its body. Any motion of the macro body is achieved by simple displacements / deflections of photons’ circular paths in space. It is the universal medium that is affecting such motion. See: http://vixra.org/pdf/1402.0069v1.pdf As structural distortions in universal medium are transferred in space, they carry enclosed primary 3D matter particles (which constitute the macro body) in space. Actions are limited to universal medium about each of the basic 3D matter particles. It is the moving structural distortions in the universal medium, which are moving a macro body. Hence, when a macro body is moved, there is no relative motion or friction between its constituent primary 3D matter particles and surrounding universal medium. This part of universal medium is the local region, in and about the macro body. However, with respect to the vast universal medium (outside immediate surroundings of the macro body), the macro body has a relative displacement in space. 3D primary matter particles, during their motion through the universal medium, experience resistance from the universal medium. Photon’s ejection (moving effort) is also caused by the universal medium. Speed of a photon is determined by resultant of these efforts. Resultant linear speed of a photon is the highest possible linear speed through universal medium that can be sustained without rupture of universal medium. Since the resistance from universal medium is already accounted for in the motion of the photons, such resistance will not be carried further into the motion of 3D macro bodies. Therefore, 3D macro bodies will not experience any drag to their motion through the all-encompassing universal medium (space).

Monday, November 29, 2021

Dark Matter

Dark matter is proposed as a hypothetical form of matter thought to account for approximately 85% of the matter in the universe. Apparent galactic rotation anomaly necessitated additional matter in galaxy to sustain its observed spin speed. Since no additional real matter could be observed, imaginary dark matter was invented to provide suitable explanation to galactic rotation anomaly. As dark matter is not defined, it is assigned different meanings in different theories. Galactic rotation anomaly is an apparent phenomenon caused by assigning reality to apparent planetary orbital paths around central bodies. Refer: http://viXra.org/abs/1403.0972

Dark Energy

In cosmology and astronomy, dark energy is an unknown form of energy that affects the large scale universe. Dark energy is an assumed property of empty space, required to validate the assumption of cosmic inflation at accelerating pace. Since universe is of steady state, assumption of dark energy is superfluous. Refer: http://vixra.org/abs/1101.0016

Binary systems

Existence of binary star (and multi star) systems is a widely believed supposition. In binary systems, two stars (along with their accompanying macro bodies) are assumed to revolve in circular paths around their barycenter in space. In multi star systems, more than two stars are assumed to orbit around a common barycenter. Stability of their paths is attributed to gravitational attraction between them and the centrifugal actions due to their curved (circular) paths. Each system is assumed to float independently in space without external help. All external influences are ignored. Often their orbiting paths may differ from conventional elliptical shape to facilitate the assumption. Macro bodies, floating freely in space is very illogical and contrary to physical realities. All macro bodies in universe (except stable galaxies) have translational motion in space at very high linear speeds. In reality, it is physically impossible for a free macro body to revolve around another moving body in any kind of geometrically closed path. [This can be clarified by observing a person trying to move around another person walking along a defined path]. Each body in space has its own independent linear path. Shape of this path may be influenced by external factors (to some extent) to alter its linearity. Therefore, circular/elliptical paths of stars in a binary/multi star system (and elliptical planetary orbits about their central bodies) are untenable and physically impossible proposition. [See: http://vixra.org/pdf/1311.0018v1.pdf]. Two stars of equal 3D matter-contents (masses), moving in more or less parallel paths in the same direction but approaching each other under mutual gravitational attraction may gradually change directions of their paths to spiral about a central path. They may appear as members of a binary star system for a short while. Stability of such a system is very critical. Even slightest changes in their 3D matter-contents, variation in external influences or uneven distribution of their 3D matter-contents within their bodies would make the system unstable and disintegrate into individual stars, moving in independent directions. Hence, supposition of stable binary star systems is merely an imaginary exercise. [See: https://vixra.org/abs/2109.0112].

Friday, November 26, 2021

Black hole

A black hole is currently defined as ‘a region of spacetime where gravity is so strong that nothing — no particles or even electromagnetic radiation such as light — can escape from it’. Yet we are able to photograph and receive information from it. Black hole is a region of space occupied by an extremely dense 3D macro body and from where no information reaches the outside world. Except for its extremely high 3D matter-density, the 3D macro body within a black hole is like any other macro body. It has neither exotic nor mysterious properties. Like other macro bodies, black hole also radiates matter in the form of photons (corpuscles of radiation) under gravitational collapse. Due to very high gravitational attraction between outgoing photons and the black hole, 3D matter-contents of the photons disperse into space until they die. This prevents information from reaching outside world. Surviving electromagnetic waves from the dead photons form the CMB radiation, noticed in nature. See: http://vixra.org/pdf/1404.0056v1.pdf. Every stable galaxy has a black hole as its central part. A black hole is formed by accretion of 3D matter-bodies at the central part of a galactic cloud. Growth of the black hole at the centre of a spinning galaxy would continue until centrifugal actions on nearby 3D matter-bodies overcome gravitational attraction on them towards the black hole. Black holes play significant part in recycling of matter between different spatial statuses and thus maintain entropy in nature within limits.

Planetary spin

All macro bodies in space are accreted from dense parts of galactic gasses. During their accretion, denser parts approach each other and other accreting bodies under mutual gravitational attraction in random directions. As the body becomes denser, it develops linear motion at very high linear speed. Simultaneously, the body also develops an apparent spin motion in a resultant direction of directions of movements of its parts. Rotary motion of a body requires diametrically opposite points (in rotating planes) on its surface to move in opposite directions. However, due to very high linear speed of the body, every point on it moves in the same direction and slight differences in linear speeds of diametrically opposite points on the body produces the appearance of the body spinning about its central axis. After a planet enters its orbital path, direction of its apparent spin motion is gradually stabilized in the plane of its orbital plane. Similarly, spin motion of a planet is apparent only about its central axis. Part of central force on a planet, orbiting about a central body, produces the torque on it to cause planet’s apparent spin motion. Torque applied on the planet during its motion in alternating half cycles of orbiting path are in opposite directions. Therefore, depending on the values of torques in opposite directions, resulting apparent spin motion of a planet may be in either direction or the planet may have no apparent spin motion at all. See; https://vixra.org/pdf/1008.0029v4.pdf

Thursday, November 18, 2021

Three-body problem

Three-body (multi-body) problem is an imaginary conundrum in contemporary cosmology. It deals with orbits of planetary bodies about their central bodies in a planetary system. We may take orbits of sun (the central body), the earth (a planetary body) and the moon (a satellite body) as an example. In a heliocentric solar system; First: the sun is assumed to occupy a fixed point in space, without translation. Earth is assumed to orbit around the static sun. Second: The earth is assumed to occupy a fixed point in space, without translation. The moon is assumed to orbit around the static earth. For this scenario to be true, at least the earth has to be simultaneously translating and static in space. This is an impossible proposition. Except stable galaxies, all systems of macro bodies and independent macro bodies in space are moving at great linear speeds. Hence, central bodies of planetary systems or a planet that appears as central body of a satellite body are not physical realities. Therefore, n-body problem is an imaginary analytical exercise. See: http://vixra.org/pdf/1205.0097v2.pdf

Planetary orbits

An orbit is the gravitationally curved (regularly repeating) imaginary trajectory of an object around another body. The central body is always assumed static in space and the orbiting body is assumed to move around the central body. Except for gravitational attraction, all macro bodies in space are independent of each other. Those bodies in a group that are relatively nearby and having considerable gravitational attraction between them are considered as a planetary system. All macro bodies in a planetary system arrive from outside the system. All objects in nature move at great linear speeds. It is physically impossible for a free macro body to orbit around another moving body in any type of geometrically closed path. Hence, real planetary orbits are not around their central bodies but are wavy about the mean paths of central bodies, alternatively moving in front and rear of the central body under mutual gravitational attraction. Eccentricity and curvature of segments of these paths on either side of mean path of central body are determined by their relative parameters. Central bodies of planetary systems orbit around respective galactic centers. Therefore, planetary orbits about a corresponding central body are ideally in the plane of central body’s orbital path around galactic center. Minor discrepancies are removed in due course of time. See: http://vixra.org/pdf/1008.0010v2.pdf.

Monday, November 15, 2021

Properties of bitons

A biton is the most stable and self-stabilizing 3D matter-particle. Bitons may approach each other under gravitational attractions, whenever disc-planes of constituent photons in one biton coincide with disc-planes of constituent photons in another biton. Depending on the polarities of their primary electric fields, two bitons within range and in a plane may apparently attract or apparently repel each other. Combinations of primary electric fields of bitons in superior 3D matter-particles/bodies produce resultant electric fields about them. A cloudy set of half-rings may be assumed as visual image of a biton. Gaps between the half-rings indicate the place where disc-planes of photons’ coincide with the plane of biton. A biton is a ring-shaped 3D matter-particle with primary electric field in the ring’s plane. At high linear speed, a biton tends to place its plane perpendicular to direction of its linear motion. This phenomenon produces halo around a stable galaxy, by arranging (re-arranging) bitons moving along the periphery of its spinning body and helps to keep distance towards neighboring galaxies steady and prevent their translations in space (thus maintains steady state of universe). A biton is the most stable and self-stabilizing 3D matter-particle. Free-floating bitons are plentiful in space. Under suitable conditions, they may from various fundamental particles and superior 3D matter-bodies. Two bitons in mutually perpendicular planes about a common centre form an elementary 3D matter-particle, a tetron. A single layered shell formed by numerous tetrons is a neutron. Three bitons in mutually perpendicular planes, about a common centre form a fundamental 3D matter-particle, a hexton. Hextons are of two kinds – positron and electron. A positron, being part of a neutron-like shell, forms a proton. A positron, linking two neutron-like shells, forms a deuteron. Deuterons are major components of atoms. Each deuteron is presently counted as one proton + one neutron.

Stable biton

Inertial properties of distortion-field around a biton guide 3D matter-cores of its constituent photons to synchronize their movements with each other. They will move at the same linear speeds and spin at the same frequency in phase with each other. Disc-planes of 3D matter-cores of these photons will always coincide with each other. Mean circumference of a biton is equal to one wave-length of its constituent photons. A cloudy set of half-rings may be assumed as visual image of a biton. Gap between the half-rings indicate positions of photons when planes of their 3D matter-cores coincide with the plane of biton. External pressure on a biton tends to push constituent photons towards each other and thus reducing mean diameter of the biton. Overbearing between inertial-pockets of the photons tends to reduce their linear speeds and pace way for the photons to reduce their 3D matter-contents. Reduction of 3D matter-content of a photon lowers its frequency. Reduction in frequency of constituent photons of a biton increases mean circumference of the biton and thus making it larger in size. Therefore, external pressure on constituent bitons of a 3D matter-body causes its expansion in size and loss of 3D matter-content from it. This phenomenon is heating. A 3D matter-body is at its highest 3D matter-content level (coolest) and smallest in size when external pressure on it is least (in free space). For the same reason, inner core of all macro bodies are at much higher temperature than its surface and may be in different physical states. Each photon has a primary electric field in its circular plane. Combinations of primary electric fields of constituent bitons in superior 3D matter-bodies produce their resultant electric fields. Arrangements of primary / resultant electric fields in proper array produce a magnetic field.

Thursday, November 11, 2021

Interactions by photons in a biton

Constituent photons of a biton move in common circular path at the constant linear speed of light. Radial size of a biton is maintained by balancing gravitational attraction between 3D matter-cores of constituent photons by centrifugal actions due to curvature of their common circular path. Variations in photons’ 3D matter-contents make identical changes in both gravitational attraction and centrifugal actions, so that radial size of a biton is maintained. Interactions between matter-fields of the constituent photons of a biton maintain synchronization of their frequency, relative position in the common circular path and continuous coincidence of disc-planes of 3D matter-cores of photons. Linear speed at the highest possible limit and spin speed proportional to 3D matter-content of the photons are maintained by their inertial pockets (structurally deformed region in universal medium surrounding photon’s 3D matter-core). Inertial pockets, being material structures, have inertial properties. Hence, setting up has certain time delay. Similarly, removal of structural distortions in universal medium along a photon’s path to restore its stability also has certain time delay. This inertial property of universal medium lets certain magnitude of structural deformation to permanently exist around the biton in the shape of circular distortion-field. Circular distortion-field is an electric field. Hence, every photon exhibits a primary electric field about it. Very high distortion-density within parts of permanent primary electric field setup within circular path of the photons in a biton and associated with each of the photons tends to prevent collision between 3D matter-cores of photons under external influence. However, if the external influence is too large, 3D matter-cores of the photons may unite to form a single photon of twice the 3D matter-content, which may eventually deteriorate into a stable photon of lower frequency.

Formation of Bitons

Two high-frequency photons of (almost) identical 3D matter-content, moving in parallel paths in opposite directions, are within range and spinning in phase with each other come under gravitational attraction between them. They would be spinning at the same frequency in the same direction with respect to each other and disc-planes of their 3D matter-cores will coincide at the moment they cross each other. At this moment, if the gravitational attraction between them is strong enough to deflect their paths so that the photons will move in common circular paths about common centre. The photons will continue to spin in phase with each other and their 3D matter-cores will continuously be coplanar. This combination of two high-frequency photons is a ‘biton’. A biton is the most stable and self-stabilizing 3D matter-particle. Strict parameters and complimentary movements of high-frequency photons, required to form a biton, restrict rate of bitons formed in universe. Very high stability of bitons ensure equally very low rate of destruction of bitons. However, ample supply of free bitons is available to form superior 3D matter-particles under suitable conditions. General shape of a biton is an imaginary tubular ring (formed by structurally distorted region in universal medium) with constituent photons placed at diametrically opposite points on its periphery and moving along the common circular path while spinning in phase with each other. Girth of this imaginary tube is least when disc-planes of photons’ 3D matter-cores coincide with the plane of their common circular path. Similarly, girth of this imaginary tube is most when disc-planes of photons’ 3D matter-cores are perpendicular to the plane of their common circular path.

Thursday, November 4, 2021

Nuclear field

Structurally deformed region in the universal medium is a ‘field’. A field is represented by imaginary lines of force. Curved (angular) lines of force indicate an electric field. Linear lines of force indicate a magnetic field. Radial lines of force indicate a nuclear field. Latticework squares of 2D energy fields (of universal medium) in a radial distortion-field are deformed in linear directions, radially towards or away from a central point. Its lines of force are straight lines with arrows, radiating towards or away from a central point. Interaction between two radial distortion-fields gives rise to ‘nuclear’ nature of distortion-fields. Hence, radial structural distortions in universal medium are a ‘nuclear field’. Nuclear fields are usually produced only by electrons and positrons. Under specific conditions, certain very large macro bodies (towards end of their life) also produce nuclear fields, which may cause their destruction by explosion. Very high intensity explosions also cause nuclear fields. If structural distortions (lines of force) are directed outwards from the central point, they produce ‘repulsive nuclear field’. Fundamental 3D matter-particles, associated with repulsive nuclear field (the electrons), apparently repel all other primary and fundamental 3D matter-particles. If structural distortions (lines of force) are directed inward towards a central point, they produce ‘attractive nuclear field’. Fundamental 3D matter-particles, associated with attractive nuclear fields (the positrons), apparently attract all other primary and fundamental particles. Due to geometry of 2D energy field structure, nuclear fields cannot add to or subtract from each other.

Magnetic field

Structurally deformed region in the universal medium is a ‘field’. A field is represented by imaginary lines of force. Curved (angular) lines of force indicate an electric field. Linear lines of force indicate a magnetic field. Radial lines of force indicate a nuclear field. Latticework squares of 2D energy fields (in universal medium) in a linear distortion-field are compressed or expanded in the same linear direction. Lines of force, representing a magnetic field are straight lines with arrows at outward end. Interaction between linear distortion-fields gives rise to ‘magnetic’ nature of distortion-fields. Hence, linear distortion-fields are ‘magnetic fields’. Due to circular paths of constituent photons in primary 3D matter-particles, there are no 3D matter-bodies that can produce linear distortion-fields. They can be produced only by arranging number of primary 3D matter-particles with angular distortion fields, in suitable array. End of a linear distortion-field, from where the lines of force appear to come out (of the 3D matter-body that is producing the distortion-field) is its ‘North pole’ and the end of linear distortion-field, to which the lines of force appear to enter is its ‘South pole’. A magnetic line of force points towards south polarity. A small part of a curved line of force, of sufficiently large radius of curvature, acts as a linear line of force. Hence, an electric field (angular distortion-field), whose its lines of force have less than certain magnitude curvature, acts as a magnetic field (linear distortion-field), whose axis is perpendicular to the axis of electric field. This phenomenon causes inseparable association between electric and magnetic fields.

Saturday, October 30, 2021

Electric field

Structurally deformed region in the universal medium is a ‘field’. A field is represented by imaginary lines of force. Curved (angular) lines of force indicate an electric field. Linear lines of force indicate a magnetic field. Radial lines of force indicate a nuclear field. Latticework squares of 2D energy fields (in universal medium) in an angular distortion-field are distorted in angular direction. Lines of force are curved lines with arrows in clockwise or anti-clockwise direction. Overlapping angular distortion-fields gives rise to ‘electric’ nature of interaction between the 3D matter-bodies that produce the distortion-fields. Hence angular distortion-fields are ‘electric fields’. Constituent photons in all primary 3D matter-particles (bitons) move in circular paths. Unstable inertial pockets of these photons deform latticework structures of 2D energy-fields angularly to produce angular distortion-fields. Hence, all bitons (and other superior particles being unions of bitons) have angular distortion fields. Due to the angular nature of an electric field, its lines of force are (partly or fully circular) curved lines, in the (resultant) direction of motion of photons in the bitons. An electric field, being curved (circular) structural distortions in universal medium, has two possible directions. Looking from one side, electric lines of force appear clockwise. This side of the electric field is the ‘positive electric charge’. Looking from the opposite side, electric lines of force appear anti-clockwise. This side of the electric field is the ‘negative electric charge’. Electric charge is relative reference of an electric field’s direction (of structural distortions in universal medium). Since electric charges are relative directions, type of electric charge of an electric field depends on the reference used by the observer. Electric charge is a property of deformed electric field and a functional entity. Electric charges have no independent existence as is believed today. Every electric field has both positive and negative electric charges. Both, electrons and positrons, have similar electric fields with both positive and negative electric charges. Electric charges are synonymous with magnetic poles of a magnetic field. Field forces or inertial actions on corresponding 3D matter-bodies, produced by interaction between two electric fields, not only depend on the type of electric charges (relative directions of electric fields) but also on the distance between their centres of curvature. At certain distance (‘zilch-force distance’) between two electric fields, they produce no ‘field forces’ or inertial motions of corresponding matter-bodies. Beyond zilch force distance, due to lower curvature of lines of force, magnetic nature of the distortion fields dominate and electric fields behave like magnetic fields. Electric nature of electric fields (during interaction between two angular distortion fields) is exhibited only when the distance between them is less than ‘zilch-force distance’, where their lines of force have greater curvatures. It is a geometrical necessity to have axes of an electric field and corresponding magnetic field, perpendicular to each other. An electric field with lower curvature is often mistaken for a magnetic field, whose axis is at right angle to the axis of electric field. See: http://vixra.org/pdf/1409.0062v1.pdf

Mass

Mass is a mathematical relation between external force (acting on a body) and the acceleration of the body in the direction of the force. Due to lack of a reference to define matter-content of a body, one of its attribute, the mass is often used to define as an equivalent to the quantity 3D matter-content of a 3D matter-body. Being a mathematical relation, it is a functional entity. It has neither objective reality nor positive existence in space. Mass exists only in the minds of physicists and in mathematical analyses. It has neither cause nor creator, except the rational beings and their mathematical analyses. The force and the acceleration are mathematical concepts. Therefore, there is only one type of mass, irrespective of the source of force or the type of acceleration. There is no difference between gravitational mass and inertial mass of a body. If the external force is unable to accelerate a body, its mass becomes infinity and if the external force (that is being applied) cannot act on a body, its mass becomes zero. Hence, depending on the nature of external force and the body’s ability to accelerate, mass of a body can vary between zero to infinity. See: http://vixra.org/pdf/1105.0034v2.pdf

Thursday, October 28, 2021

Inertial field

The term ‘inertial’ is used here as an adjective to the phenomenon that causes ‘inertia’ of a body rather than in the sense of apparent or imaginary. Structural distortions in the matter-field of (universal medium in and about) a 3D matter-body develop, sustain its integrity and maintain the body’s constant state of existence in space. Additional work (structural distortions) invested with its matter-field determine the body’s state of motion (or current state). During action of an effort by a force-applying body, only the additional work associated with its matter-field can transferred out of association with the body in part or full without disintegration of the body. Changes in the state of force-applying body are the reaction to the force. Similarly, during an action of an effort, it is the additional work received in to the matter-field of force-receiving body that produces related action on it. Transfer of work (moving structural distortions in universal medium) associated with matter-field of a 3D matter-body (force-applying body) to the matter-field of another 3D matter-body (force-receiving body) is the work lost from the force-applying body and its magnitude is equal to the work gained by matter-field of the force-receiving body. This is the effort applied by the force-applying body to the force-receiving body. Force is the rate of effort (work done) with respect to distance of application of the effort. Transfer of moving structural distortions (in the universal medium) into the matter-field of force-receiving body starts to move 3D matter-particles of force-receiving body near the point of application in the direction of effort. Displacement of first layer of 3D matter-particles compresses latticework structures of universal medium between first and next layers of 3D matter-particles in force-receiving body. As long as the effort exists, first layer of 3D matter-particles are prevented from moving backward to release the compression. Therefore, only way to regain stability of universal medium is to push the second layer of 3D matter-particles in the force-receiving body forward. Similar and subsequent actions, starting from point of application of effort till the forward limit of the force-receiving body, displace the 3D matter-body in space. This action continues until structural distortions in and about both matter-fields stabilizes their momenta and the bodies moves at a constant linear speeds. Magnitude of momentum (work) lost from the force-applying body is equal to the magnitude of momentum gained by the force-receiving body. They may be considered to act in opposite directions (as action and reaction). Work lost from the matter-field of force-applying body and work gained by force-receiving body, during action of an effort, destabilizes respective matter-fields. As the destabilization is caused by mechanical and sequential movements of quanta in the latticework structures of universal medium, it takes certain time for the matter-fields to regain their stable states. The time delay required for stabilization of works associated with these 3D matter-bodies is the ‘inertial delay’. Therefore, inertia is a property of universal medium due to time required for stabilization of its disturbed latticework structures. See: http://vixra.org/pdf/1010.0041v2.pdf , http://vixra.org/pdf/1402.0069v1.pdf.

Field forces

Structurally deformed region in the universal medium is a ‘field’. Fields are classified according to nature of structural distortions in latticework structures of 2D energy-fields in the region of universal medium. A field is represented by imaginary lines of force along the assumed directions of work involved in their creation and interactions. Curved (angular) lines of force indicate an electric field. Linear lines of force indicate a magnetic field. Radial lines of force indicate a nuclear field. Structurally deformed region in and about 3D matter-body is its ‘matter-field’. When two 3D matter-bodies appear to interact, it is their matter-fields which comes into contact with / overlap each other. Depending on the direction of lines of forces and strength of the fields, overlapping of structural distortions in the matter-fields produces a resultant field in the region of overlap. Distortion-density in the region may be enhanced or depleted. Due to self-stabilizing property of the universal medium, difference in distortion-densities in two of its regions tend to transfer structural distortions from the region of higher distortion-density to region of lower distortion-density. During such transfer of structural distortions in the universal medium, 3D matter-particles of associated 3D matter-bodies (which produce the interacting matter-fields) are also carried along with them. Displacements of the 3D matter-bodies produce related moving structural distortions in the universal medium, which continue to move the 3D matter-bodies according to the laws of (inertial) motion. Structural distortions in the universal medium instrumental to inertial motion constitute work done about these bodies. Rate of work done about these 3D matter-bodies due to interaction of their fields, with respect to distance, is the field force.

Tuesday, October 26, 2021

Fields / Distortion-fields

Entire space, outside the most basic 3D matter-particles is filled with a universal medium structured by quanta of matter. Quanta of matter form two-dimensional latticework structures (2D energy-fields) in all possible planes in space and together they form the universal medium. Universal medium is a self-sustaining entity that strives to be stable, isotropic, homogeneous and serene. A structurally deformed region in the universal medium may be called a ‘field’, corresponding to the phenomenon it is associated with. Universal medium is inherently under compression, even without a container. A rapture or presence of a disturbance in its latticework structures invokes external pressure on them by universal medium. This property of universal medium is the gravitation. Gravitational actions, essentially, require a gap in a ruptured 2D energy field. Gravitational pressure is applied by the 2D energy field onto a disturbance (even if it is in the form of 3D matter-body) within the gap. Gravitation is applied onto the disturbance as long as the disturbance is in existence in a gap in 2D energy fields. Due to continuous application of gravitation, latticework squares in the universal medium surrounding a disturbance / 3D matter-body remain distorted as long as the disturbance is in existence. Directions of the distortions are inward from the (curved) perimeter of the disturbance, towards the centre of curvature (of body’s perimeter). This structurally distorted region around a 3D matter-body may be called the ‘gravitational field’ about that body. All self-sustaining primary and fundamental particles are made up of groups of photons, in various combinations, which then form atoms and macro bodies of diverse properties. Gravitational actions of universal medium develop and sustain them under suitable conditions. Constituent photons of primary / fundamental particles move at their critical linear speed in curved paths within the respective bodies. Curvature of a photon’s path makes its inertial pocket unstable. Instability of inertial pockets of constituent photons in primary and fundamental particles alter nature of structural distortions in surrounding universal medium. Depending on the nature of these distortions, they form various types of ‘distortion-fields’, like: gravitational fields, matter fields, electric fields, electrostatic fields, magnetic fields, nuclear fields, inertial fields, etc., which may interact with each other when they are within range. Distortion-field about a matter-particle is the local region in the universal medium outside the border of the matter-particle. Unlike gravitational field, it does not require a discontinuity in the universal medium because the presence of the 3D matter-particle, itself, causes the required discontinuity. Due to latticework structure of a 2D energy field, structural distortions in it have to form closed loops. If the structural distortion starts at a point in a 2D energy field, it has to spread through and return to the starting point, so that there is no discontinuity in its latticework structure. Development of a distortion-field is an inertial action. Unlike the structural distortions in universal medium, which act on 3D matter-bodies due to gravitation, structural distortions in a distortion field cannot act on 3D matter-bodies, because certain actions of the same bodies are the cause of these structural distortions. Structural distortions, which develop a distortion field, have no ends at the border of associated 3D matter-bodies. Overlapping of two distortion-fields, may change distortion-densities on either side of a 3D matter-body. Tendency of 2D energy fields, to achieve homogeneity, tends to transfer structural distortions in it, from higher distortion-density region to lower distortion-density region. Transfer of structural distortions in universal medium carries the 3D matter-particles, which are producing the overlapping distortion-fields, to move the body in space. This phenomenon causes apparent attraction or apparent repulsion between the matter-bodies under interaction of ‘field forces’. Displacement of a matter-body in space is an inertial action. During this motion, additional distortions are created within the matter-field of the participating bodies to change their state (of motion). In order to simplify explanations on distortion-fields, complicated nature of distortions in latticework structure in a distortion-field (in a plane) may be resolved into various components. There are three possible varieties of structural distortions in a 2D energy field (latticework structure in a plane) – linear, angular and radial. Direction of a component of a distortion-field is indicated by imaginary ‘lines of force’. If (linear) directions of two interacting components of distortion-fields are in opposite directions, they tend to neutralize each other. If (linear) directions of two interacting components of distortion-fields are in the same direction, they tend to enhance each other. Constituent (two) photons of a primary 3D matter-particle (a biton) move in a common circular path in universal medium. They are under constant action by structural distortions causing their linear and spin speeds at critical values and additional distortions produced due to gravitational attraction between them. Motions of these photons in resultant circular path create new sets of structural distortions in the universal medium surrounding the primary 3D matter-particle. These structural distortions constitute the distortion-field of the biton, which is angular in direction, around the biton. Number of bitons combines to form superior 3D matter-particles. Distortion-field of a superior 3D matter-particle is the resultant of distortion-fields of all its constituent bitons. See: http://vixra.org/pdf/1404.0440v1.pdf

Diverse natural forces

Physical effort is currently classified into different classes according to its related phenomenon. Therefore, we have different types of ‘natural forces’ viz; gravitational attraction (gravity), electric force, magnetic force and (strong and weak) nuclear force. There are also various mechanical forces, derived from the above. Since force is the rate of transfer of work associated with a body’s matter-field, there is only one type of effort in nature. All types of ‘natural forces’ and other mechanical forces have to be essential derivations from only one fundamental effort. Entire space, outside the most basic 3D matter-particles, is filled with a universal medium formed by 2D energy-fields (in all possible planes), structured by quanta of matter. Universal medium is a self-sustaining entity that strives to be stable, isotropic, homogeneous and serene. ‘Structural distortions’ in 2D energy fields (in universal medium) is ‘work done’. Work, in universal medium, tends to transfer from higher distortion-density region to lower distortion-density region. Such transfer of work is an effort. Rate of effort with respect to distance is force. During action of an effort, constituent 3D matter-particles (of a body) enclosed in the structurally distorted region are also carried along with the structural distortions. Therefore, transfer of structural distortions in universal medium causes physical effort. All efforts in nature are similar and there is only one type of effort. Due to its structure, universal medium is inherently under compression. A 3D matter-particle, in the universal medium, experiences compression from universal medium. This property of universal medium is gravitation. Magnitude of gravitation corresponds to extent of universal medium that exerts the pressure. Extent of universal medium between two 3D matter-particles is always less than extents of universal medium on their outer sides. Hence higher gravitational actions on outer sides tend to move the 3D matter-particles towards each other. This tendency is understood as gravitational attraction or gravity. Gravitational attraction (gravity) is the resultant (relatively a minor by-product) of separate gravitational actions on two 3D matter-particles by universal medium. Other field-forces are the result of differences in structural distortion-densities in universal medium due to gravitation on opposite sides of 3D matter-particles of two objects. They are named in relation to the phenomena they are associated with. Depending on the nature of electric charges, magnetic polarity or nuclear polarity of these objects, resulting effort may produce apparent attraction or apparent repulsion between the objects. If structural distortion-density is higher between the objects, they will appear to repel each other. If structural distortion-density is lower between the objects, they will appear to attract each other. Mechanical forces are the result of transfer of structural distortions in universal medium (work) associated with an object. See: http://vixra.org/pdf/1402.0069v1.pdf

Sunday, October 24, 2021

Resultant of forces

Currently, a force is understood as a push or pull upon an object resulting from the object's interaction with another object. It is the rate of work done about a body with respect to the distance of action. Intrinsic work about a body creates, develops, maintains its integrity and keeps the body in a constant state (of motion). Additional work associated with a body determines parameters of its integral state. Action of an effort is to transfer additional work (structural distortions in the universal medium in and about a 3D matter-body) associated with a 3D matter-body to another 3D matter-body. Gaining additional structural distortions in universal medium in and about a 3D matter-body is an action and losing additional structural distortions in universal medium in and about a 3D matter-body is a reaction. Action of a force (or reaction) may be understood as transfer of moving structural distortions between 3D matter-bodies. Conversely, movement of a 3D matter-body through the universal medium can be considered to produce associated structural distortions in surrounding universal medium. Two sets of structural distortions, in different directions, translating a 3D matter-body tend to move the body in a resultant direction. Movement of the 3D matter-body in resultant direction produces structural distortions in the universal medium in the direction of its current motion, while the original structural distortions (which caused particle’s resultant motion) lose their association with the body due to its displacement from the direction of transfer of those structural distortions. State of motion of the matter-body in the new direction is maintained by additional distortions caused by the motion of the 3D matter-body in the resultant direction. A 3D matter-body, moved by more than one set of additional structural distortions in surrounding universal medium, produces an independent set of additional structural distortions, corresponding to the body’s current motion, in the surrounding universal medium. These additional structural distortions correspond to current magnitude and direction of additional work associated with the 3D matter-body. See: http://vixra.org/pdf/1402.0069v1.pdf.

Force

Generally, the term ‘force’ is understood as the cause of an action and it is considered as synonymous to effort. Currently, a force is understood as a push or pull upon an object resulting from the object's interaction with another object. It is the rate of work done about a body with respect to the distance of action. [In the physical sciences, power is the rate of work done about a body with respect to the interval of action and the pressure is the perpendicular force exerted on an object per unit area, or the stress at a point within a confined fluid]. Whenever there is an interaction between two objects, work (structural distortions in the universal medium) is transferred from the matter-field of one body that has higher distortion-density to the matter-field of the other body that has lower distortion-density. That is to say that a force acts only from the ‘force-applying mechanism’ to the ‘force-receiving body’. Since the work that is being transferred has an origin and a destination, the force has a definite direction – from the force-applying mechanism to the force-receiving body. This nature of force indicates that all forces are of push nature. However, when we consider the action with respect to the force-applying mechanism, it appears that it is being pulled by the force-receiving body. This appearance produces the fallacy of pull forces and the assumption of equal but opposite forces upon both the objects. When the interaction ceases, no work is transferred between matter-fields of the two objects (they experience the force no longer). In physics, ‘action at a distance’ is the concept that an object can be moved, changed, or otherwise affected without being physically touched (as in mechanical contact) by another object. A nonlocal interaction of objects that are separated in space is an impossible proposition. Application of force essentially requires direct contact between matter-fields of interacting objects. In the alternative concept, proposed in the book ‘MATTER (Re-examined)’, a medium of direct contact between objects at a distance is provided by the universal medium, structured by quanta of matter. Direct contact is between matter-fields of interacting bodies rather their constituent 3D matter-particles. A push force develops when work is transferred from matter-field of higher distortion-density to the matter-field of lower distortion-density. See: http://vixra.org/pdf/1512.0248v1.pdf

Friday, October 22, 2021

Energy

In physics, energy is the quantitative property that must be transferred to an object in order to perform work on, or to heat, an object. Energy is a conserved quantity; the law of conservation of energy states that energy can be converted in form, but not created or destroyed. Universal medium is a self-sustaining entity. It strives to sustain its structural formations, homogeneity, isotropy and serenity. Continuous stabilization is one of its inherent properties. Structural deformation in universal medium is ‘work’. As deformation in the structure of universal medium is a physical action and tangible, work is a real entity. Structural deformation (strain) in an inherently stable system causes stress. Stress, in universal medium is the ‘energy’. It is a property of universal medium to oppose strain in its structure. As energy is a property of universal medium, it is intangible and hence a functional entity. Energy has no independent existence or form. Wherever work is present, energy is also present as a byproduct. Contrary to contemporary belief, work is a real entity and energy is its shadow. Work, being deformations in universal medium, is only of one kind. Therefore, energy (shadow of work) is also of only one kind. However, depending on its associated phenomenon, energy is often classified into various types. This classification does not change characteristics of energy in anyway. Energy, being a functional entity, cannot be transformed, transferred or stored. All such functions, currently assigned to energy, are in reality functions of work. Wherever work is present, corresponding energy develops. As energy has no form or existence, it cannot transform into matter of any kind. Since ‘work done’ is not recognized as a real entity and instead energy is accepted as a real entity, the current SI unit of energy is the joule, which is the energy transferred to an object by the work of moving it a distance of 1 meter against a force of 1 newton. In reality, the current SI unit of work should be the joule, which is the additional work transferred to an object by the additional work of moving it a distance of 1 meter against a force of 1 newton.

Work

Work is required to change state of a 3D matter-body. It is the total magnitude of additional structural distortions (in universal medium) associated with the body. It, being mechanical displacements of constituents in universal medium, is tangible and hence a real entity. Work is the cause of all actions on/by a matter-body. Actions are the results of work being developed or invested (transferred) in association with a material body. Work is done to create and sustain basic 3D matter-particles, to develop and sustain fundamental particles, to develop and sustain macro bodies, change state of matter-bodies, etc. Total work, required for all actions leading to development and sustenance of a matter-body and which maintains the body’s integrity is magnitude of ‘intrinsic work’ associated with the body. Supplementary magnitude of work, added to universal medium associated with a 3D matter-body is the ‘additional work’ and it changes and sustains state of the body. Work (structural distortions) may be transferred from one part of universal medium to another part of universal medium. It may or may not be associated with 3D matter-bodies. Work may be stored in association with 3D matter-bodies. Region of universal medium that contains work is a ‘field’. The field in and about a 3D matter-body, which contains all the work associated with the body may be called the body’s ‘matter-field’. When two matter-fields interact, depending on their distortion-densities, work may be transferred from the matter-field that has higher distortion-density to the matter-field of the other body. This is how one body acts on another. Constant magnitude of additional work, associated with a matter-body, sustains its steady state (of motion), indefinitely. Supplementary additional work may be added or removed from this quantity of additional work to change the matter-body’s state (of motion). Adding additional work increases structural distortions and removal of additional work reduces structural distortions in universal medium, associated with a body. Enhancing structural distortions in universal medium increases work and reduction of structural distortions in universal medium decreases work. Structural distortions in universal medium in the same direction add to increase additional work and structural distortions in opposite directions subtract from each other to reduce (or reverse) additional work associated with a body. See: http://vixra.org/pdf/1111.0104v2.pdf

Wednesday, October 20, 2021

Action:

We appreciate matter only when it exists in the form of three-dimensional bodies. Hence, only the movements of three-dimensional matter-bodies are recognized as actions. If matter is in any form other than in three-dimensional spatial state, currently, we do not accept their displacements as actions. Because of this restriction, it is assumed that magnitudes of actions are usually proportional to magnitudes of corresponding efforts and directions of actions are the same as directions of efforts. In theoretical physics, result of an external effort is often understood as an action. Action is a change in the status of a system. It usually represents overall changes in the state of (internal or external) motion of a physical system. It is an abstract expression. An effort needs not always produce tangible change in state of motion of a three-dimensional material body. In such cases, external effort is understood as being ‘applied’, but not ‘acting’. Inability of an effort to act may be due to any one or more of several reasons. 1. Effort may be too small to make necessary changes in ‘additional work’ associated with a matter-body/system, so as to change its state of motion. Relatively very small external efforts may initially act on comparatively large macro bodies to create small dent (and corresponding motion) on its surface until introduction of any more ‘additional work’ is prevented (opposed) by ‘reaction’ from the ‘force-receiving’ body. 2. ‘Additional work’, invested by an effort is effectively neutralised (opposed) by equal and opposite ‘additional work’ associated with the body/system. This could be due to action or application of other inherent efforts, like; friction, apparent efforts (representing undefined actions) in opposite direction to external effort, etc. 3. ‘Force-receiving body/system is moving at equal or higher linear speed than the speed of application of ‘additional work by the ‘force-applying body/system’ in the direction of external effort. As linear speed of a ‘force-receiving body’ is increased in relation to linear speed of ‘force-applying body’ in the same direction, efficiency of action by external effort gradually reduces until when their linear speeds (in the same direction) are equal, efficiency of external effort becomes zero (%). All observed actions are related to displacement of 3D matter-bodies in universal medium. 3D matter-bodies are displaced in space by ‘work’ in the form of moving structural distortions in universal medium. Certain magnitudes of moving structural distortions are created in universal medium for creation of basic 3D matter-particles and their further development into macro bodies. These structural distortions maintain integrity of the macro body in space. Displacement of the macro body (as a whole) requires investment of additional structural distortions (in the universal medium in and about the body) moving in straight line direction. Structural distortions in universal medium required to create and develop the 3D matter-body remain with the body to sustain its integrity. This may be called the ‘intrinsic work’ associated with the body. Structural distortions, additionally invested in the universal medium in and about the body, required to initiate and maintain the body’s change of state may be called ‘additional work’ associated with the body. Development of additional structural distortions in universal medium and their stabilization (change of state of the body) requires certain time. This tendency gives rise to the phenomenon of ‘inertia’. Displacement of a macro body that essentially gives rises to inertia may be called an ‘inertial action/motion’. [This may be in disagreement with present concept of the term ‘inertial’, being used to indicate unreal or pretended nature of a phenomenon]. See http://vixra.org/pdf/1402.0069v1.pdf With the establishment of quantum theory, concept of action fell under certain restrictions. While considering behavior of atomic particles, actions are restricted only to certain states of motion, where magnitudes of actions are whole-number multiples of a certain very small number, known as Planck's constant. Thus, Planck's constant is now considered as a natural unit of action (a quantum of action) or of displacement. Because of this, many other properties used in physics also came to be quantified in relation to Planck’s number.

Expansion of universe, Big bang:

Advent of ‘Law of universal gravitation’ necessitated that all 3D matter in the universe accumulate at a central point. This does not happen in observable universe. 3D matter appears distributed more or less uniformly in an infinitely vast universe. In order to overcome this conundrum, many theories were proposed, which required 3D matter-bodies at greater distances to repel each other and thus overcome gravitational attraction between them. Illogical theories of ‘expansion of universe’ and ‘Big bang theory’ were among them. As no logical cause for the expansion on universe could be proposed, while maintaining observable effects of gravitational attraction, the ‘big bang theory’ was proposed. The thought of expanding universe brings in another fallacy that the bodies farther than certain limit should be moving at linear speeds greater than the (ultimate linear speed) linear speed of light. It is this distance that is currently regarded as the limit of observable universe. Idea of expansion of universe originated from the discovery that frequencies of light from remote galaxies reduce (red-shifted) as they approach earth. This is falsely interpreted as farther bodies are receding from the earth at linear speeds proportional to distances between earth and those bodies. Cause of red-shift of light was based on the assumption that the light is electromagnetic wave in nature. In order to do this, the Doppler Effect, applicable to sound (transfer of work) in the form of waves through material medium was incorrectly applied to assumed waves of light transmitted though vacuum. However, corpuscles of light (photons) are the most basic 3D matter-particles and they are translated through and by surrounding universal medium, structured by quanta of matter. Disc-shaped 3D matter-core of a photon moves at the highest possible (hence constant) linear speed and spins about one of its diameters at a frequency proportional to its 3D matter-content. Due to stabilization mechanism of the universal medium, each photon continuously loses part of its 3D matter-content and reduces in frequency, while travelling through vast distances. This is the reason for red-shift of light received from farther bodies and this indicates the distance between the bodies rather than translation of these bodies. According to an alternative concept, proposed in the book ‘MATTER (Re-examined)’, a universal medium structured by quanta of matter fills the entire space outside the most basic 3D matter-particles. It has definite mechanism by which distances between neighboring stable galaxies are maintained steady. This prevents stable galaxies from approaching each other and enables a steady state universe, parts of which are cyclically destroyed and renewed. See: www.matterdoc.info

Tuesday, October 19, 2021

Breakdown of universal medium

Entire space, outside the most basic 3D matter-particles is filled with a universal medium structured by quanta of matter. Quanta of matter form two-dimensional latticework structures (2D energy-fields) in all possible planes in space and together they form the universal medium. Universal medium is a self-sustaining entity that strives to be stable, isotropic, homogeneous and serene. Due to frequent migrations or loss of quanta of matter junctions in lattice works of 2D energy-fields remain continuously agitated and their points of contacts are not steady. This makes the bonds between linking quanta of matter in 2D energy-fields very weak. Hence, with sufficient deformation, the latticework structures of 2D energy-fields may be ruptured. Large deformation efforts in parallel but opposite directions in nearby regions may breakdown latticework structures of 2D energy-fields in the universal medium. Rapture of 2D energy-fields creates gaps in them and release quanta of matter free in the region. Depending on the availability of free quanta of matter in the region, universal medium may create new photons in the region, radiated in the form of light or other forms of radiation (as we notice during lightning strikes, electric arcs, Chemiluminescence, etc.). Quanta of matter of very large matter-content (size) may cause extremely large deformation of latticework structures in 2D energy-fields so that their structure may breakdown. Sudden mechanical impulses (including sound) may also breakdown these structures. Parts of 2D energy-fields, formed by triangular arrangements of quanta of matter are highly stable and have very robust structure. Impact by free photons or fundamental 3D matter-particles breakdown these types of regions in 2D energy-fields.

Repulsion between unstable photons

In stable state of a photon, quantity of its 3D matter-content does not change but shape of its 3D matter-core changes continuously to suit the required ejection efforts. At the same time, inertial pocket also changes in distortion-densities and shapes of distorted regions in associated 2D energy fields for the same reason. A photon, whose 3D matter-core is stable and inertial pocket (structural distortions in universal medium about it) is unstable, is an unstable photon. Additional deformations in universal medium about an unstable photon cause differences in structural distortion-densities around photon’s path. Distortion-density in universal medium will be greater on the concave side and lesser on the convex side of photon’s path. If paths of two unstable photons are within interactive distance, structural distortions in universal medium between them (depending on the directions of distortions) will either add together or subtract from each other. This will change balance between actions of universal medium on their 3D matter-cores. If distortion-density between the unstable photons is higher than distortion-densities on the outer sides of their paths, self stabilizing property of universal medium tends to distribute the structural distortions so that its stability is restored. Transfer of structural distortions in universal medium surrounding the 3D matter-cores moves them away from each other. This is the apparent repulsion between two unstable photons.

Sunday, October 17, 2021

Attraction between unstable photons

In stable state of a photon, quantity of its 3D matter-content does not change but shape of its 3D matter-core changes continuously to suit the required ejection efforts. At the same time, inertial pocket also changes in distortion-densities and shapes of distorted regions in associated 2D energy fields for the same reason. A photon, whose 3D matter-core is (quantity-wise) stable and its inertial pocket (structural distortions in universal medium about it) is unstable, is an unstable photon. Additional deformations in universal medium about an unstable photon cause differences in structural distortion-densities around photon’s path. Distortion-density in universal medium will be greater on the concave side and lesser on the convex side of photon’s path. If paths of two unstable photons are within interactive distance, structural distortions in universal medium between them (depending on the directions of distortions) will either add together or subtract from each other. This will change balance between actions of universal medium on their 3D matter-cores. If distortion-density between the unstable photons is lower than distortion-densities on the outer sides of their paths, self stabilizing property of universal medium tends to distribute the structural distortions so that its stability is restored. Transfer of structural distortions in universal medium surrounding 3D matter-cores of these photons moves them towards each other. This is the apparent attraction between two unstable photons.

Gravitational attraction between photons

A photon has a disc-shaped 3D matter-core. 3D matter-cores of photons are under constant gravitational actions. Perimeter surface of a photon’s 3D matter-core has very high convex curvature due to its minute radial size. This is instrumental for very high gravitational action on it by universal medium to maintain radial size of the 3D matter-disc constant and to maintain 3D status of quanta of matter in the disc. However, the faces of 3D matter-core have minute convex curvatures that are sufficient to produce propelling efforts on it by universal medium. Gravitation and apparent attraction between 3D matter-bodies due to gravitation takes place independently in each plane. Gravitation can act only on curved surfaces of 3D matter-particles. As gravitational actions on disc-faces of 3D matter-cores of photons are very minute and used to provide movements of 3D matter-core, they may be ignored as they do not contribute towards gravitational attraction. Major parts of gravitational actions are confined to peripheral surface of 3D matter-disc in a photon. Hence, gravitational attraction can take place only between 3D matter-cores of photons, whose disc-planes coincide. Extent of universal medium between 3D matter-cores of two photons is always less than the extents of universal medium on their outer sides. Hence, higher gravitational efforts on the outsides of 3D matter-cores overcome lower gravitational efforts from inner sides and tend to move the 3D matter-cores towards each other. This action is gravitational attraction between two photons. Since discs of 3D matter-cores of photons are practically very thin and spin about one of their diameters, time interval for its disc-plane to exist in any one plane is extremely short and depends on their 3D matter-contents (frequency). Gravitational attraction between two photons takes place only when disc planes of their 3D matter-cores coincide in a plane and lasts only as long as this coincidence exist. Therefore, once gravitational attraction is active between any two particular photons, it may take very long time (or never) to repeat similar gravitational attraction between them. However, when photons are constituents of superior 3D matter-particles, their paths are controlled so that disc-planes of their 3D matter-cores become coplanar within reasonable intervals so as to provide a mean (average) value for gravitational attraction between the superior 3D matter-bodies. Hence, magnitude of gravitational attraction between two 3D matter-bodies is comparatively too small comparable to apparent attraction between constituent photons in both bodies, whose disc-planes are assumed coplanar.

Friday, October 15, 2021

Unstable photon

A stable photon is the most basic 3D matter-particle. It is a combination of a disc-shaped 3D matter-core and structurally deformed region in universal medium in its immediate surroundings. The combination becomes a stable photon only when it attains critical properties of constant linear speed and spin-speed (frequency) proportional to its 3D matter-content. Universal medium sustains a photon in its stable state unless affected by external influences. In stable state of a photon, quantity of its 3D matter-content does not change but shape of its 3D matter-core changes continuously to suit the required ejection efforts. At the same time, inertial pocket also changes in distortion-densities and shapes of distorted regions in associated 2D energy fields for the same reason. Changes in the direction of photon’s motion or its 3D matter-content destabilize the photon. Changes in structural distortions in universal medium (about its 3D matter-core), caused by changes in the direction of its motion, destabilize the photon without affecting quantity of its 3D matter-content. Similarly, changes in the quantity of its 3D matter-content destabilize a photon by affecting structural distortions in universal medium (about its 3D matter-core). Changes in 3D matter-content of a stable photon may occur by addition or depletion of quanta of matter in its 3D matter-core. A free photon loses quanta of matter from its 3D matter-core at a constant rate during travel through long distances. However, universal medium sustains stability of the photon by making corresponding changes in photon’s spin speed (frequency). External actions may tend to influence a photon’s direction of linear motion. This is the most wide spread and common phenomenon that has direct bearing on its instantaneous linear speed. Structural distortions in surrounding universal medium gets further deformed in an effort to sustain photon’s stability. These additional structural deformations in universal medium will continue to be present as long as direction of its motion is affected by the external actions. This state of photon may be termed as unstable. An unstable photon is a stable photon moving in non-linear path. That is; it is stable by its 3D matter-content and its spin speed (frequency) but its path is not linear. It is the additional structural deformations in surrounding universal medium that transform a stable photon into an unstable one. All superior 3D matter-particles are formed by combinations of unstable photons.

Stable photon

Disc-shaped 3D matter-core and structurally distorted region in surrounding universal medium, together, form a photon. Only when the combination attained its critical constant parameters with respect to universal medium in the region, it becomes a stable photon. In its stable state, the 3D matter-core should be moving at the highest possible (hence constant) linear speed in a straight line and it should be spinning about one of its diameters at spin speed (frequency) proportional to its 3D matter-content. A photon is the most basic 3D matter-particle. It is a corpuscle of light or other types of radiation of 3D matter. Movements of photon’s 3D matter-core are accomplished by linearly moving and rotating structural distortions of universal medium in its immediate surroundings. Stability of a photon is twofold. Quantity of its 3D matter-content is maintained constant by addition or subtraction of quanta of matter during control of its linear speed by the universal medium. Attempt to accelerate a photon adds quanta of matter to 3D matter-core to increase its 3D matter-content. Similarly, attempt to decelerate a photon reduces quanta of matter from 3D matter-core to reduce its 3D matter-content. Changes in the quantity of 3D matter-content are automatically reflected in photon’s frequency. Attempt to change frequency of a photon is also negated in similar manner by changes in relative speed between segments of 3D matter-core and universal medium, without affecting photon’s linear speed. Changes in the direction of photon’s motion or its 3D matter-content destabilize the photon. Changes in structural distortions in universal medium (about its 3D matter-core), caused by changes in the direction of its motion, destabilize the photon without affecting quantity of its 3D matter-content. Similarly, changes in the quantity of its 3D matter-content destabilize a photon by affecting structural distortions in universal medium (about its 3D matter-core). Stable photons are radiation of 3D matter with accompanied structural distortions in surrounding universal medium. 3D matter-core of a photon provides its particle-nature and rotating and translating structural distortions in universal medium about its 3D matter-core provide photon’s wave-nature. Transfer of oscillating structural distortions (in any plane) is an electromagnetic wave. Hence, stable photons often exhibit properties of electromagnetic waves, separately in each plane. Stable photons are classified according to quantity of their 3D matter-contents (frequencies). Stable photons of lowest frequency are infrared radiation and stable photons of highest frequency are cosmic radiation. Stable photons of intermediate frequencies are those of light (in different colors), UV radiation, X rays, etc.

Thursday, October 14, 2021

Red-shift of light

Red shift is an important assumption for astronomers. This concept is derived from changes in the wavelength of sound in a material medium and the conjecture of light as pure electromagnetic waves. When a source of sound moves relative to an observer, changes in the frequency of sound are noticed by the observer. Although this phenomenon is applicable to wave motions through material medium, the same is also applied to light that is believed to radiate through vacuum with no material medium. Red-shift means an increase in wavelength, equivalent to a decrease in wave frequency, of a radiation. A beam of light (or other radiations of 3D matter) is a continuous flow of photons. Photons are the most basic 3D matter-particles. Each photon comprises of a segmented spherical (disc-shaped) 3D matter-core that spins about one of its diameters and structurally distorted region in surrounding universal medium. Movements of the 3D matter-core are accomplished by linearly moving and spinning structural distortions in the universal medium. 3D matter-core provides photon’s particle nature and associated structural distortions in universal medium provide photon’s wave nature. Universal medium moves 3D matter-core of a photon at the highest possible linear speed and spins it at frequency proportional to its 3D matter-content. Higher than critical speed compels the 3D matter-core to assimilate quanta of matter from surrounding universal medium and increase its frequency (3D matter-content). Similarly, lower than critical speed compels the 3D matter-core to discard quanta of matter into surrounding universal medium and reduce its frequency (3D matter-content). Due to superimposition of linear and spin motions of photon’s 3D matter-core, its forward turning segment moves at slightly higher linear speed and rearward turning segment moves at slightly lower linear speed than the critical speed of 3D matter through universal medium. This also shifts centre of rotation away from rearward turning segment. Hence, the forward turning segment has lesser increase in its linear speed compared to greater reduction in linear speed of rearward turning segment. Forward turning segment gathers lesser number of quanta of matter from universal medium and rearward turning segment releases higher number of quanta of matter into the universal medium. As a photon travels through great distances, difference in quanta of matter gained and quanta of matter lost from its 3D matter-core reduces photon’s 3D matter-content and its frequency. This phenomenon is the reason for the red-shift of light (and other radiations) received from very far. Electromagnetic waves, being transmission of cyclical variations of distortion-density in the structures of 2D energy fields (universal medium), behaves like sound waves transmitted through a material medium.

Relative speed of a photon

Linear and angular speeds of a photon are with respect to the universal medium (2D energy fields) in the region of its motion. Its linear speed is a critical constant; because that is the highest possible linear speed at which the universal medium can transfer structural distortions without rupturing 2D energy fields’ latticework structures. Hence, linear speed of light in any region space, in any direction is a critical constant for that region of space. A photon traverses the same number of 2D energy fields’ latticework squares in the same interval of time. (Note that the scale of time and distance in any region of space are defined in terms of observed linear speed of light). Usually, the observer is also located in the region of universal medium, where the speed of light is considered. Under such conditions linear speed of light with respect to the observer is identical in all direction, irrespective of motions of the observer. This is because the linear speed of the observer with respect to the surrounding universal medium is negligible, when compared to the linear speed of light with respect to the surrounding universal medium. If the observer is small enough to move with considerable speed with respect to the surrounding universal medium, linear speed of light in the region will obey all physical rules of relative motion, as any other body’s motion. Linear speeds of two photons (moving in parallel path in the same direction) with respect to each other are nil. Linear speeds of two photons (moving in parallel path in opposite directions) with respect to each other are equal to double the speed of light. Discrepancies appear only when the speed of light in different regions of space (with different universal medium-distortion status) are compared. This is how we came to regard; (a) the linear speed of light as variable, when the light is transmitted inside a medium within the region where the observer is present. (b) the time as variable, when the light is transmitted in a medium, outside the region where the observer is present.

Wednesday, October 13, 2021

Spin speed of a photon

A photon is the most basic 3D matter-particle. It is a corpuscle of light (radiation). Each photon has a segmented spherical (disc-shaped) 3D matter-core that spins about one of its central diameters that divides the disc into two segments. Faces of both segments have convex shape – forward face has less curvature compared to rearward face. Higher convex curvature at the rearward face of each segment produces higher ejection effort as compared to resistance offered by its forward face. Balance between these efforts keeps spin speed of the 3D matter-core a critical constant and proportional to its 3D matter-content. Attempt to increase spin speed of a photon tends to increase its 3D matter-content (frequency). Higher 3D matter-content enlarges the segment that leads to increased curvatures at its forward and rearward faces that result in higher resistance compared to ejection effort required for its motion. Similarly, attempt to reduce spin speed of a photon tends to reduce its 3D matter-content (frequency). These mechanisms from universal medium maintain spin speed (frequency) of a photon proportional to its 3D matter-content. Should the 3D matter-content and hence the frequency of a photon becomes very low, such that it is unable to maintain its linear and speeds at critical level, whole of its 3D matter-content would escape into surrounding universal medium to terminate existence of photon as a stable 3D matter-particle. However, associated moving structural distortions (remnants of dead photon) in surrounding universal medium continue to move within the universal medium, indefinitely. These moving distortions appear to us as CMB radiations. Should the 3D matter-content and hence the frequency of a photon continues to increase, convex curvatures at forward and rearward faces of 3D matter-core increase proportionately. A stage may reach such that linear component of resultant ejection effort on the 3D matter-core may not be sufficient support linear motion of the photon at its critical level. At this stage, linear speed of photon tends to reduce and pave way for the 3D matter-core to discard quanta of matter into surrounding universal medium and reduce its 3D matter-content. Therefore, photons with higher frequency (than about 1022 Hz.) are very rare in nature and they are unstable (have very short life span).

Constancy of linear speed of light

A light beam is continuous procession of corpuscles (photons). Photons are the most basic 3D matter-particles. Entire space, outside the most basic 3D matter-particles, is filled with a universal medium structured by quanta of matter. Universal medium provides the mechanism for the creation, sustenance and movements of photons. Disc-shaped 3D matter-core of the photon and structurally deformed region in surrounding universal medium (inertial pocket), together, form a photon. A photon’s creation is completed only when it has gained all properties (like: shape, radial size, constant critical linear speed and spin speed proportional to its 3D matter-content) required for a photon. 3D matter-core of a photon has a flexible shape within its general segmented spherical shape. Speeds of movements of 3D matter-core are regulated by changes in the convex curvatures of its surface by universal medium. Due to latticework structures of 2D energy fields in universal medium speed of its ability to deform without structural breakdown is limited. Hence, highest linear speed of transfer of structural distortions and speeds (linear and rotational) of photon in universal medium depends on the ability of universal medium. Universal medium moves the 3D matter-core of a photon at the highest possible linear speed with respect to itself. As it is the highest possible linear speed the universal medium can provide its magnitude is constant for all photons (and EM waves) in any region of space. Depending on the structural peculiarities of universal medium, constant speed of light may vary at different regions of space. See: http://vixra.org/pdf/1103.0026v2.pdf. Universal medium incorporates a mechanism to regulate and preserve constancy of linear speed of a photon. Attempt to increase linear speed of a photon is countered by adding quanta of matter to photon’s 3D matter-core and thus increasing its spin speed (frequency) rather than its linear speed. Similarly, attempt to reduce linear speed of a photon is countered by releasing quanta of matter from photon’s 3D matter-core and thus reducing its spin speed (frequency) rather than its linear speed. Currently, linear speed of light and unit of distance are defined by circular logic. “The speed of light in a vacuum is defined to be exactly 299,792,458 m/s (approx. 186,282 miles per second). The fixed value of the speed of light in SI units results from the fact that the meter is now defined in terms of the speed of light”.

Monday, October 11, 2021

Linear speed of light

A photon moves through 2D energy fields in the universal medium. Translating 2D energy field-distortions (inertial pocket around the 3D matter-core of the photon) carry the 3D matter-body of the photon. There is a relative motion between the 3D matter-core of the photon and the universal medium. Relative motion causes resistance to the motion. However, at any instant, sufficient ejection is produced by the inertial pocket to overcome this resistance. Since, both the resistance and the ejection are produced by the 2D energy fields; this effectively reduces any drag on the photon to nil value. Thus, it becomes the inherent property of the universal medium to move all basic 3D matter-particles (3D matter-core of) photons) in it, at the highest possible linear speed. Ability of the ejection, to overcome resistance, determines this highest possible linear speed, which we observe as the speed of light. Highest possible linear speed, for any region of universal medium (space) is of constant value. This value depends on the density and direction of structural distortions in the universal medium. Therefore, speeds of light in different regions of space may differ from each other with respect to references used in different regions of space. Once a photon has achieved its stable state by moving at its critical linear speed, its linear speed is maintained automatically at constant level by variations in its 3D matter-content (frequency). Attempt to increase linear speed of a photon tends to increase its 3D matter-content (frequency). Similarly, attempt to reduce linear speed of a photon tends to reduce its 3D matter-content (frequency). See: http://vixra.org/pdf/1103.0026v2.pdf.

Nature of light

Continuous flow of photons (corpuscles of radiation) is a beam of light. Photons are the most basic 3D matter-particles. Photons are created from free quanta of matter, available within gaps in structures of universal medium. Universal medium gathers free quanta of matter available in a gap in it, compresses and shapes them into disc-shaped 3D matter-cores of photons. 3D matter-core of a photon spins at spin speed proportional to its 3D matter-content and moves at the highest possible linear speed with respect to universal medium. Movements of 3D matter-cores of photons are accomplished by structural distortions formed in surrounding universal medium (inertial pocket). Linearly moving and rotating inertial pocket has many similarities with EM waves in each plane. 3D matter-core and inertial pocket in surrounding universal medium, together, form a photon. 3D matter-core provides its particle nature and inertial pocket in surrounding universal medium provides its wave nature in each plane. See: http://vixra.org/pdf/1312.0130v1.pdf .

Saturday, October 9, 2021

Shape of a photon

Shape of the 3D matter core of a stable photon is segmented spherical with convex curvature at the rear surface of each segment. Forward faces of the segments have very slight convex curvature so that gravitational repulsion does not take place. Shape and curvatures on the surface of photon’s core-body vary continuously to provide the required ejection and spinning efforts by gravitational actions from surrounding universal medium. A Disc-shaped 3D matter-core of a photon is the most basic 3D matter-particle. It spins continuously about one of its diameters at spin-speed (frequency) proportional to its 3D matter content and moves at the highest possible linear speed with respect to universal medium. It is constituted by numerous free quanta of matter squeezed together (inside an imaginary flexible sack) by surrounding universal medium. Continuous movements of 3D matter-core of photon are accomplished by direct push-actions from continuously varying and moving structural deformations of surrounding universal medium. Therefore, overall shape of distorted region in surrounding universal medium about 3D matter-core of a photon has no permanent shape. It varies continuously as required to sustain critical shape and (linear and spin) speeds of photon’s 3D matter-core. A photon is a combination of its 3D matter-core and associated structurally distorted region in surrounding universal medium. 3D matter-core provides its particle-nature and linearly moving and rotating structural distortions in the surrounding universal medium (inertial pocket) provide its wave nature. Linear speed of a photon is limited to highest possible (hence constant) value by limited ability of universal medium. This combination becomes a photon only when it is stable by moving at the highest possible linear speed and spins at rotary speed proportional to its 3D matter-content (with respect to the universal medium). All other superior matter-bodies are made up of photons, in various combinations.

Photon

Disc-shaped 3D matter-particle (formed by universal medium from free quanta of matter in its gap and moving at a constant linear speed and spinning at an angular speed proportional to its 3D matter-content) and associated structural distortions in surrounding universal medium, together, form a ‘photon’. A photon is a corpuscle of radiation (infra red radiation, light, x-rays, etc.). A photon has a 3D matter-body, as its core and structurally distorted region in surrounding 2D energy fields (‘inertial pocket’). Movements of the 3D matter-core are accomplished by moving inertial pocket. Inertial pocket, about a photon’s 3D matter-core in any plane, has many similarities with electromagnetic waves in each plane. The core body and the surrounding inertial pocket give a photon, its dual nature. The 3D matter-core body provides its particle nature and the inertial pocket provides its wave (electromagnetic) nature. 2D energy fields surrounding the photon mould its core to continuously varying stable shape, moves it at the highest possible linear speed through the universal medium and spins it about one of its diameters at an angular speed proportional to its 3D matter-content. This is how the light attains its constant linear speed. This speed is the limit of linear motion (of real bodies) in nature because that is the highest possible linear speed at which the universal medium can transfer structural distortions in it. Speed of light or electromagnetic waves is with respect to surrounding universal medium and it depends on the nature of the universal medium in the region, where they are moving. Characteristic movements of photons are essential for their sustenance. An attempt to increase linear speed of a photon, results in an increment in its 3D matter-content (by absorbing quanta of matter from the universal medium) with corresponding increase in its spin speed (frequency) rather than a change in its linear speed. Similarly, an attempt to reduce linear speed of a photon, results in a reduction in its 3D matter-content (by absolving quanta of matter from its core body into the universal medium) with corresponding reduction in its spin speed (frequency) rather than a change in its linear speed.

Friday, October 8, 2021

Creation of 3D matter-particle

Due to their inherent compression, quanta-chains around a gap in the structures of 2D energy fields grow (extend) into a gap in universal medium and reduce the area of the gap (volumetric space). As a result, many of the free quanta of matter in the gap(formed by a rapture in the latticework structures of universal medium) will not be able to migrate back into latticework structures of 2D energy fields. Quanta of matter, which are unable to gain their position in the latticework structure, are gathered together, within the gap, by the encroaching quanta-chains. These free quanta of matter are compressed by each of the 2D energy fields, in its own plane, until the combined body of free quanta of matter become a single integrated matter-body (while maintaining their individualities), a circular ‘2D disturbance’ within each of the 2D energy fields. This phenomenon gives rise to the property of 2D energy fields to reduce any disturbance in them to minimum magnitude. Magnitude of a disturbance in any plane is the length of its perimeter in that plane and in contact with the 2D energy field. If the matter-content of a 2D disturbance in a 2D energy field is more than certain limit, compression on the disturbance compel constituent quanta of matter in the 2D disturbance to grow into their third spatial dimension. A disturbance, growing into the third spatial dimension, creates real three-dimensional matter. In our sense, this is the creation of real matter from 1D matter-particles (functional entities with respect to 3D beings). A reverse process describes reversion of real 3D matter into its functional state. Main functions of gravitation are creation, conservation and obliteration of 3D matter in the universe. Larger 2D disturbances are compressed further by the 2D energy fields into their 3D state. Gravitational actions by 2D energy fields on a group of randomly oriented free quanta of matter (within a temporary gap in the 2D energy fields) compress the collection to create matter core of a basic 3D matter-particle. During the creation of a 3D matter-particle, unevenness of gravitational action on its surface causes ejection of the 3D matter-particle (in full or in part) from the 2D energy field, where it was originally located. 2D energy fields are everywhere in space. Newly created 3D matter-particle can never escape from being in many 2D energy fields, simultaneously. Therefore, ejection of 3D matter-particle from 2D energy fields of their existence is a continuous process. This creates the inherent property of a circular 3D matter-particle to move in a linear path in 2D energy fields. Asymmetry of ejection effort on a circular 3D matter-particle about its centre initiates spin motion about one of its diameter. Eventually, gravitational actions on the 3D matter-particle move it at a constant (highest possible) linear speed and spin it at an angular speed, proportional to its 3D matter-content. 2D energy fields exert gravitation by creating structural distortions in the region surrounding the 3D matter-particle. All work (energy) required for the creation and motion of a 3D matter-particle is stored in the structural distortions of 2D energy fields associated with the 3D matter-particle. As the distortions are transferred through 2D energy fields at the highest possible linear speed, the 3D matter-particle is also carried with the moving distortions. Surrounding structural distortions in the 2D energy fields mould the 3D matter-particle’s core body into segmented spherical (disc) shape and move it at the highest possible linear speed. Radial size of the 3D matter-particle is maintained at a critical value, which is common to all moving 3D matter-particles.

Gravitation

All possible planes in space have one 2D energy-field each. A 2D energy-field is structured in latticework formation by quanta of matter in a plane. This structure extends infinitely in all direction in its plane. Combination of 2D energy-fields in all possible planes, together, forms the universal medium. Due to self-elongating properties of quanta of matter and frequent migration of quanta of matter into the fabrics of 2D energy-fields, constituent quanta of matter in a 2D energy field (in quanta-chains) of universal medium are held under compression from (both) their ends, even without presence of a limiting container. Should there be a local rupture in universal medium or presence of a 3D matter-particle; a gap is created in (one or more) 2D energy fields. 2D energy fields tend to grow into the gap in the universal medium. A 3D matter-particle, within the universal medium, experiences compression from the 2D energy-fields all around its surface. This compression is the gravitation. Gravitational effort (pressure) is a mechanical action by direct contact, applied by universal medium on 3D matter. 3D matter-core of each of the photons is an independent 3D matter-body. Therefore, gravitation acts directly on each of the photons (their 3D matter-cores) of a macro body rather than the surface of the whole body. Gravitational effort is a property of universal medium and its actions continue as long as the 3D matter-particle is in existence. Gravitational efforts are the cause of all creations and actions in 3D spatial system. Gravitation is an inherent property of universal medium derived from tendency of quanta of matter to reduce their existence into minimum spatial dimensions. Owing to latticework structures of 2D energy fields, gravitation is able to act only on curved surfaces of 3D matter. On convex surface gravitation is positive (higher push) action that causes gravitational attraction between two convex-curved 3D matter-particles. And on concave surface, it is negative (lesser push) action that may cause gravitational repulsion between two concave-curved surfaces of 3D matter-particles. Gravitation is unable to act on plane surface of 3D matter-particles. Gravitational effort is exerted by 2D energy fields in the direction away from the quanta-chains, which are exerting the effort. It is of push nature. All 3D matter-particles are disturbances with respect to 2D energy fields. However, as 3D macro bodies are structured by basic 3D matter-particles, curvature of 3D macro body’s perimeter has little effect on magnitude of gravitation. If the distortion-densities in 2D energy fields, on opposite sides of a 3D matter-particle, are different, distortions tend to redistribute by moving in the direction of lower distortion-density region. While doing so, distortions in the 2D energy fields carry a disturbance within the gap, along with them. This causes displacement of a disturbance in space.

Monday, October 4, 2021

Spatial dimensions

Although modern physicists usually consider space in association with time to be part of a boundless four-dimensional continuum known as space-time, physical space is often conceived in three linear dimensions. Currently, the standard spatial interval, called a meter, is defined as the distance traveled by light in vacuum during a time interval of exactly 1/299,792,458 of a second. Use of circular logic to define time is usually ignored. In order to relate one object to another (or a point in a body to another point) or locations of a body at different intervals, we use spatial dimensions. They indicate (quantify) extent of real space (universal medium) between two points. Although there are different systems of spatial-dimensions, the most convenient and widely used spatial dimensional system is that of ‘three-dimensional’. For this, we divide space about a reference point into eight parts by three mutually perpendicular planes and relate location of a point in space with each of these planes (length, breadth and depth). In order to have spatial dimensional systems with more than three, we should be able to divide space into more parts by mutually perpendicular planes through a reference point. This is quite impossible. Three-dimensional spatial system includes both, two-dimensional and single-dimensional systems, as its integral parts. See description of ‘space’.

Friday, May 11, 2012

Absolute reference frame

‘Hypothesis on MATTER’ (proposed in the book ‘(MATTER (Re-examined)’ envisages a self-stabilizing, homogeneous, isotropic and serene universal medium, structured by matter-particles. Since this medium fills the entire space and (as a whole) is steady in space, it can provide an absolute reference for all actions on and apparent interactions between 3D matter macro bodies. Homogeneity of universal medium is usually affected only in close proximity of matter-bodies. Very large macro bodies affect homogeneity of universal medium for considerable distance from the body. Any point in universal medium may be chosen as an origin and the coordinate planes through the origin will provide an absolute reference frame. When motion of a body is related to the absolute reference, parameters of the body and its path in space will reflect real status of the body and its motion. Motion of a 3D matter-body is an inherent property provided by universal medium. Translational motion with respect to universal medium is essential for stability and integrity of basic 3D matter-particles. Every macro body, in nature, is under motion. However, motion of a macro body is limited to within its parent galaxy. A stable galaxy has no translational motion. It rotates about its centre and all objects, which are part of it, move about galactic centre, which is steady in the universal medium. As the universal medium is not observable and a galaxy is too large, establishing an absolute reference for practical purposes and to relate it to objects’ motions is very tedious and complicated. However, true parameters of a body’s motion can be understood only when an ‘absolute reference’ is used.

Saturday, April 7, 2012

Reference frame

Motion is the process of a body’s displacement in space. Change in the spatial location of a body with respect to a reference is its displacement. Instantaneous motion concerns itself with a body’s behaviour during the instant in consideration. Change of position of a body can be understood only in relation to another body or with respect to a frame of reference or a coordinate system. Depending on the references used or the shapes of paths of displacements, motion is classified into various types. Usually, motion involves instant-by-instant charting of the behaviour of an object. This view reveals not only the instantaneous behaviour of the object but gives a complete picture of it behaviour for a length of time and route and shape of its displacements between initial location and final location. All motions are understood in relation to one or other reference. Since, at present, we have no absolute reference; we use any other seemingly steady body as a reference. Newtonian mechanics consider centre of Solar system as an absolute reference for all purposes related to our planetary system. However, this reference is changed to ‘centre of planet’, while considering the satellite systems and to the surface points on earth for day to day motions of earth-based objects. In rotary motion, centre of rotation is taken as a reference point. Inferences, based on relative reference frame, are often false and apparent. It can provide relative positions of the reference and the referred body. However, if reference body itself is moving, it will not be able to give any other parameters related to an object’s motion or shape of its path. As long as reference frame and referred body have identical initial conditions of motions, they are assumed to be at rest in the relative reference frame. However, this does not reflect any changes within the bodies or their paths due to their real state of motion.

Saturday, March 3, 2012

Inverse Square Law

Search for ‘cause and effect of an action’ often leads to an evidence that two variables are causally related or not. Observation and measurement of actions may indicate a definite pattern by which an increase in one variable always causes another measurable quantity to increase. This is a ‘direct’ relationship. Observation might also indicate that an increase in one variable always causes another measurable quantity to decrease. This is an ‘inverse’ relationship. In physics, an ‘inverse-square law’ generally states that a specified physical parameter is inversely proportional to the square of the distance from its source. It is generally applied when some conserved quantity is radiated outward radially in three-dimensional space from a point source. Since the surface area of a sphere is proportional to the square of its radius, as the radiated parameter gets farther from its source, it is spread out over an area that is increasing in proportion to the square of the distance from the source. Hence, the intensity of radiation passing through any unit area (directly facing the point source) is inversely proportional to the square of the distance from the point source. Thus any law in which a physical quantity varies with distance from a point, inversely as the square of that distance, is called an ‘inverse square law’. As gravitational attraction is considered as an ‘attractive force’, inverse square law was adopted to determine its magnitude. Magnitude of gravitational attraction between two point-matter-bodies (masses) is directly proportional to the product of their masses (representing their 3D matter-contents) and inversely proportional to square of their separation distance. Gravitational attraction is assumed always as attractive and acting along the straight line, joining centers of two macro bodies. If distribution of 3D matter in each body is spherically symmetric, then these objects can be treated as point masses, whose whole 3D matter-contents are concentrated at their centers. To calculate magnitude of gravitational attraction between large macro bodies, we need to add all point-to-point attractions vectorially and this magnitude of net attraction might not show exact inverse square relationship. However, if distance between the macro bodies is much larger compared to their sizes, then it is reasonable to treat their 3D matter-contents (masses) as point mass while calculating (approximate) magnitude of gravitational attraction. It is evident that the magnitude of gravitational attraction between two 3D matter-bodies is in proportion to their 3D matter-contents and in inverse proportion to the distance between them. On this basis, an empirical formula is devised and used to determine magnitude of gravitational attraction between two 3D matter-bodies. As there are no references available, magnitudes of gravitational attractions are determined on empirical basis and with the help of inverse square law. Gravitational attraction is measured in terms of rate of work that can be done on a (macro) body. Rate of work-done on a physical body is the ‘force’. Hence, gravitational attraction is defined as a ‘force’ of attraction between 3D matter-bodies. Equal magnitude of ‘force’ is presumed to act on both bodies, towards each other. However, they are never taken in combination. Gravitational attraction on any one body and its effect are usually taken in isolation and the same on other body are ignored. Additional work, done on a body, changes its state (of motion). Change in the state of motion is the acceleration of the matter-body. Thus, magnitude of gravitational attraction is measured in terms of rate of additional work (force) that can change the state of motion at certain rate. Force of gravitational attraction; , where m1 and m2 are rest masses of two bodies, equivalent to their 3D matter-contents, d is the distance between their centers of gravity and G is a constant, empirically determined from experiments. Inverse square law for force of gravitational attraction is scaled by the use of a constant, G, determined by measuring inertial (that causes motion) actions of bodies due gravitational attraction between them, as it is done in the cases of various occasions, where this law is applicable. Since G is determined experimentally, no theoretical determination is attempted on logical reasons behind magnitude of this constant.